-

 

SUBFAMILY SPIRANTHOIDEAE DRESSLER

 

1979, Selbyana 5, 2 : 204.

Type: Spiranthes Rich.

100-110(18) genera and 1200-1400(65) species. Tropical, subtropical, temperate and boreal areas of all continents.

 

Trib. 3.1. Tropidieae Dressler

Dressler, 1983, Telopea 2, 4: 422.

Typ e : Tropidia Lindl.

2(2) genera and 30-40(3) species. Tropical and subtropical areas of all continents.

 

Corymborkis Thouars,

1809, Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. ( Paris ) 2 ser. 1: 318; Rasmussen, 1977, Bot. Tidskr. 71, 3-4: 161-192.

Type: C. corymbis Thouars.

Sympodial terrestrial herbs with short woody rhizome, fasciculate rigid roots and erect semi-woody bamboo-like unbranched stems up to 4 m tall. Leaves sessile, glabrous, plicate, sheathing at the base. Inflorescences lateral, panicle, with many flowers. Flowers white, resupinate or not. Sepals and petals basally connate to form a short tube, sub similar, long and narrow, widened toward the apex, spreading. Lip as long as sepals, narrow and close to column, except apical ovate reflexed blade. Column long, slender, straight, thickened to the apex. Anther erect, acute. Stigma broad, deeply 2-lobed. Pollinia 2, sectile, with linear caudicle and small peltate viscidium.

5(1) species. Tropical zone of the world.

 

1. C . veratrifolia (Reinw.) Blume,

1859, Coll. Orch. Arch. Ind.: 125, pl. 43, 1, pl. 42E; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 27; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 29; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 24. - Hysteria veratrifolia Reinw. 1828, Syll. Pl. Nov. Ratisbon. 2: 5.

Described from Java? Neotype ("Java: T.Lobb, 162 " - sec. Rasmussen, 1977, Bot. Tidsskr. 71, 3-4: 170) - K.

Stem up to 5 m tall with spirally arranged leaves up to 45 cm long and 12 cm wide, with long sheaths covering stem. Inflorescence up to 10 cm long, Sepals, petals and lip 2- 4 cm long. Reflexed apical blade of the lip ovate with finely crisped edges and shortly pointed apex. Column to 2- 3.5 cm long. Fruits cylindrical capsule 3- 4 cm long. Fig. 27, a ,b; 31, a .

Ecology. All kinds of lowland and submontane forests on any soils. 50- 1000 m . Fl. May July. Not rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces). Tropical and subtropical Asia, Australia and Pacific islands to Samoa .

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4773 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Na Ri, HAL 4952 (HN, LE), DKH 7631 (HN, LE, MO); Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong, Kien 147 CP (HN, LE); Ha Son Binh, Luong Son, Tiep et al., NOT-2765 (HN, LE); Hai Phong, Cat Ba, a. 1988, LX-VN 3340, LX-VN 3779 (HN, LE); Hoang Lien Son, Dan Khao, a. 1964, sine coll. 3178 (HN, LE); Kim Son, Trung, 1702 (HN, LE); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong national park, N.T.Hiep, NTH 5364 (HN); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6101 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Ke Bang, VH 4609; VH 4768 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 5870 (HN, LE), Lai Chau, Muong Te, HAL 10087 (HN, LE), Nghe An, Tuong Duong, HLF 6606 (HN, LE).

Note. This is tallest, shrub-like orchid in Vietnam truly sometimes named as bamboo orchid.

 

Tropidia Lindl.,

1833, Bot. Reg. 19 sub. tab. 1618; Seidenf., 1978, Dansk Bot. Ark. 32, 2: 108-113. - Schaenomorphus Thorel ex Gagnep., 1933, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 80: 351.

Type: T. curculigoides Lindl.

Sympodial terrestrial herbs with short woody rhizome, fasciculate rigid roots and erect semi-woody rod-like branched, or superposed leafy stems. Leaves sessile, glabrous, plicate, sheathing at the base. Inflorescences lateral or terminal, a short, dense raceme. Flowers white, not resupinate. Sepals and petals free, or lateral sepals connate into synsepalum. Lip short, spurred or saccate at the base, not mobile, narrowed to down turned, triangular, obtuse apex. Column short. Clinandrium thin-margined. Anther erect, dorsal. Pollinia 2, sectile, with linear caudicle and viscidium.

20(2) species. Tropical zone of the World.

 

Key to species

 

1. Leaves 2, broadly elliptic-ovate, usually sub opposite at a top of stem; inflorescence terminal, more than 2 cm long; lateral sepals connate into synsepalum . . . . 1. T. angulosa

-. Numerous narrowly-ovate leaves distant throughout stem; inflorescence lateral, rare terminal, less than 2 cm long; lateral sepals free or connate at the base only . . . . . 2. T. curculigoides

 

1. T. angulosa (Lindl.) Blume,

1858, Coll. Orch. Arch. Ind. Jap.: 122; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 27; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 28; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 59. - Cnemidia angulosa Lindl., 1833, Bot. Reg. 19, tab. 1618.

Described from NE. India (" India orientali; in montibus prov. Sylhet"). Lectotype ("Wallich, 7388") K.

Stem to 40 cm tall, simple or superposed, with 2 apical sub-opposite leaves. Leaves ovate to broadly-ovate, or even circular, acute to shortly acuminate, 6- 20 cm long, 2.5- 11 cm wide. Inflortescence dense terminal spike 1-4 cm long on erect stalk 2- 8 cm tall. Floral bracts narrowly-cuneate to filiform, 5- 14 mm long. Flowers white, sweet fragrant. Sepals oblong, 6- 7 mm long, 3- 4 mm wide, shortly suddenly apiculate at the apex; lateral sepals connate into bidentate synsepalum. Petals smaller, oblong, obtuse. Lip ovate, obtuse, 3.5- 4.5 mm long, concave at the base, with strongly turned down brightly yellow apex. Anther ovate, 2 mm long. Fig. 27, c; 31, b.

Ecology. All kinds of lowland and submontane forests on any soils. 0- 1600 m . Fl. April July. Common (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces). Tropical and subtropical mainland Asia, S. Japan, Taiwan , Hainan, Java, Sumatra .

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be National Park, HLF 604 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Cho Don, HLF 879 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Ba Be national park, Averyanov et al., CB 46 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Bao Lac, CBL 1547 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Bao Lac, CBL 307 (HN, LE); Dak Lak, Chu Yang Sin mt., HLF 5482 (HN, LE); Ha Tinh, Huong Son, HAL 1223, 5261 (HN, LE); Hai Phong, Cat Ba, LX-VN 3266, 3335, 3396, 3447, 3660, 3679 (HN, LE, C); Hoa Binh , Lac Son, HAL 9033 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh , Pa Co, VH 2425 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Sin Ho, HAL 9837 (HN, LE); Nghe An, Tuong Duong, HLF 6625 (HN, LE), HLF 6708 (HN) ; Quang Binh, Ke Bang, VH 4606 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 5867 (HN, LE); Quang Ninh, Ha Long Bay, NTH 5621 (HN, LE); Son La, Mai Son , HAL 9586 (HN); Vungtau-Condao, Bay Canh, 1989, Averyanov 412 (HN, LE); Vungtau-Condao, Con Dao, 1987, Averyanov 881 (HN, LE); Vungtau-Condao, Con Dao, 1989, Averyanov 512 (HN, LE).

 

2. T. curculigoides Lindl.,

1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. : 497; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 27; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 27; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 60. T. pedunculata Blume, 1859, Coll. Orch. Arch. Ind.: 122, pl. 40; Seidenf., 1992, l .c.: 27. T. graminea Blume, 1859, l .c.: 124, pl. 41, 3; Seidenf., 1992, l .c.: 27. - Schoenomorphus capitatus Thorel ex Gagnep., 1933, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 80: 351.

Described from NE. India ("India orientali; montibus Sylhet, et secus ripas fluminis Attran"). Lectotype (" Wallich, 7368 ") K.

Stem to 1.5 m tall, often branched, with numerous distant leaves. Leaves narrowly-lanceolate to narrowly-ovate, acuminate, 5- 25 cm long, 0.8- 5 cm wide. Inflorescence lateral axillary, rarely sub apical, 1- 1.8 cm long. Floral bracts triangular-acuminate, acute, 5- 10 mm long, densely imbricate, lowest sterile. Flowers white. Sepals and petals free, narrowly-ovate, acute, recurved, 7- 10 mm long, petals smaller. Lip ovate, obtuse, 5- 7 mm long, concave at the base, with turned down apex. Anther narrowly-ovate, acuminate, 5- 6 mm long. Fig. 27, d; 31, c.

Ecology. All kinds of forests on any soils. 0- 2000 m . Fl. April July. Very common (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces). Tropical and subtropical mainland Asia, Taiwan , Hainan , Malaysia , Java, Kalimantan, Timor to New Caledonia .

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be National Park, HLF 618 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Cho Don, Po Luong mt., HAL 4736 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Ba Be national park, CB 43 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Tra Linh, CBL 1251 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Yen Lac, CBL 307 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, NTH 3564 (HN, LE); Ha Son Binh, Luong Son, Tiep, NOT 2765 (HN, LE); Ha Tinh, Huong Son, DKH 4381 (HN, LE, MO); Hai Phong, Cat Ba, LX-VN 3340a (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 1558 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 1383 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Muong Te, HAL 10094 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, DKH 6538, 6627 (HN, LE, MO); Nghe An, Tuong Duong, HLF 6620 (HN, LE); Ninh Thuan, Ninh Hai, Nui Chua mt., HLF 4276 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 5859 (HN, LE); Quang Ninh, Ba Mun, a. 1987, Averyanov 142 (HN, LE); Quangnam-Danang, Phuoc Son, LX-VN 3088 (HN, LE); Thai Nguyen, Dong Hy, HAL 9093 (HN, LE); Thua Thien Hue, A Luoi, HAL 7888 (HN, LE); Vungtau-Condao, Con Dao, a. 1987, Averyanov 770, 806, 880 (HN, LE); Vungtau-Condao, Con Dao, a. 1989, Averyanov 535 (HN, LE).

 

Trib. 3.2. Cranichideae Endlicher

1842, Mant. Bot. Suppl. 2: 18.

Type: Cranichis Sw.

70-80(16) genera and 950-1050(62) species. Tropical and subtropical areas of all continents, temperate and boreal regions of Northern Hemisphere.

 

Subtrib. 3.2.1. Goodyerinae Klotzsch

1846, in Hayne, Arzneygew 14, tab. 24 (sub "Goodyereae").

Type: Goodyera R.Br.

38(15) genera and 475-500(61) species. Tropical and subtropical areas of all continents, temperate and boreal regions of Northern Hemisphere, with highest diversity in tropical Asia .

 

Anoectochilus Blume,

1825, Bijdr. 6, fig. 15; id., 1825, ibid. 8: 11 (sub " Anoecochilus " - sphalm.); id., 1828, Fl. Javae 6, emend. nom. conserv.

Type: A. setaceus Blume.

Terrestrial and lithophytic sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal lax, few flowered spike. Leaves few, spirally arranged in rosette, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, velvety dark green, brown-green to nearly black, with more or less pronounced reticulation of white, yellow or pink nerves. Scape leafless, with 2-4 sterile yellowish bracts. Flowers, sessile, resupinate or not. Sepals free. Petals very oblique, connivent to median sepal forming hood, lateral sepals spreading. Lip adnate to column base, spurred. Spur conical to cylindric, with 2 short peltate glands on lateral sides. Mesochile channeled, long to shortly fimbriate-toothed on flanges. Epichile with 2 divergent flabellate spreading lobes. Column short, fleshy, with 2 wings at front, 2 lateral stigmas and prominent rostellum. Anther triangular-ovate, acute. Pollinia 2, sectile, with stipe and viscidium.

30(7) species. Tropical mainland Asia, Indonesia , Australia , New Guinea , Pacific Islands to Polynesia and adjacent islands.

 

Key to species

 

1. Spur and lip lie in one line or placed at a broad angle; spur more or less parallel with ovary . . . . . 2

-. Spur strongly bent down in right or acute angle with mesochile, placed in a wide angle to ovary . . . . . 3

 

2. Mesochile flanges long fimbriate; sepals flat without any callosities; epichile lobes oblong-lanceolate, more or less flat . . . . . 1. A . roxburghii

-. Mesochile flanges toothed; sepals outside with few fat papillae along mid-vein; epichile lobes triangular-flabellate, truncate, plicate along margin . . . . . 2. A . papillosus

 

3. Leaves black or gray-black, rarely dark gray-brown with green tint, commonly dense reticulated with net of silvery-white nerves; mesochile flanges pectinate with more than 10 small dents or short fringes . . . . . 3. A . calcareus

-. Leaves green, dark green to green-brown, rarely black-green, commonly reticulated with net of white, yellowish or pink nerves; mesochile flanges with few blunt dents on 2-6 long fringes . . . . . 4

 

4. Mesochile flanges with at least 1-2 long linear fringes 3-5 mm long . . . . 5

-. Mesochile flanges with at few short dents . . . . . 6

 

5. Fringes on mesochile flange 4-6, all more or less equal length; sepals lanceolate or broadly-lanceolate, slightly falcate; column wings broad, rectangular, undulate along margin . . . . 4. A . albolineatus

 

-. Mesochile with 1-3 pair of long fringes, other diminishing toward the base into small narrow dents; sepals obovate, strongly oblique, with short suddenly attenuate apex; column wings narrowly-triangular, straight, acute . . . . 5. A . annamensis

 

6. Spur narrowly-cylindrical, longer than 4 mm ; epichile lobules lanceolate to broadly-lanceolate, 4-5 times as long as broad; mesochile lobes insignificant, flanges narrow, less than 1 mm wide, slightly erose or with few short irregular denticles near the base of epichile . . . . 6. A . lylei

-. Spur broadly-conical shorter than 4 mm ; epichile lobules narrowly obovate, commonly not more than twice as long as broad; mesochile lobes large, erect, triangular, flanges broad, triangular more than 1 mm wide, with 3-4 broad blunt dents along margin . . . . 7. A . brevilabris

 

1. A . roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl.,

1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. : 499; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 32; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11. - Chrysobaphus roxburghii Wall., 1826, Tent. Fl. Napal.: 37. - A. setaceus auct. non Blume: Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 46;

Described from N. India ( India , Mt. Sylhet ...). Syntypes (coll. F. De Silva Wall. Cat. 7387 ; E. India Company, icon. Wallich 34 ) K.

Terrestrial herb with 3-4 petiolate leaves in basal rosette. Leaves ovate, acute, to 5 cm long, velvety-green to dark olive-brown, with contrast reticulation of white, yellow or pink nerves, rare only with 1-3 longitudinal colored nerves or uniformly green. Scape pubescent, with 2-4 acuminate yellowish bracts, 12- 20 cm tall, with 1-15 lax flowers. Floral bracts, ovate, acuminate, pubescent, 7- 14 mm long. Ovary glandular pubescent, 1- 1.4 cm long. Sepals sub-similar, pink-brown, often with green tint, ovate-oblong, 7- 9 mm long, acute, glandular pubescent; median sepal with shortly attenuate, recurved apex; lateral sepals at the base oblique. Petals white, often with brownish-green tint along margin, oblique-falcate, as long as median sepal, attenuate. Lip white, 1.4- 1.8 cm long, spurred. Spur at a sharp angle to mesochile, 3- 6 mm long, conical, tapering to a minute 2-lobed apex, with 2 large peltate, warty glands. Mesochile with 4-8 pairs of long fringes along flanges. Epichile lobes narrowly-obovate to oblong, 7- 10 mm long. Column 3- 4 mm tall, at front with 2 large semicircular parallel wings not entering to the spur and 2 short rostellar arms. Anther ovate, acute, 3- 4 mm long. Capsule ellipsoid, 6- 10 mm long, 6- 7 mm wide. Fig. 27, e-m; 31, d, e.

Ecology. Closed broad-leaved forests of any kind, preferably on silicate soils. 200- 1600 m . Fl. November January, March. Not rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces). Bhutan , Nepal , India , Sri Lanka , S. China, Thailand , Laos .

Studied specimens. Cao Bang , Tra Linh , VH 4966 ( HN , LE ); Cao Bang , Trung Khanh , HAL 5562 (HN, LE); Dak Lac, Chu Yang Sinh mt., VH 6023 (HN, LE); Gia Lai Kontum, Kontum, LX-VN 2204 (HN, LE); Gialai - Kontum , Kon Ha Nung , LX - VN 2858 ( HN , LE ); Ha Giang , Quan Ba , HG 68 ( HN , LE ); Ha Giang , Yen Minh , NTH 3477 ( HN , LE ); Ha Tinh , Huong Son , VA N . T . Hiep et al . , 857 ( HN , LE ); Hoang Lien Son , Sapa , Takhtajan , 773 ( LE ); Khanh Hoa , Khanh Le , VH 2482 ( HN , LE ); Khanh Hoa, Khanh Son, Hon Giao mt., VH 4271 (HN, LE); Gialai Kontum , Kon Ha Nung , Kbang , LX - VN 2858 ( HN , LE ); Kon Tum , Dak Gley , VH 1943 ( HN , LE ) , VH 1944 ( HN , LE ) , VH 1945 ( HN , LE ); Kon Tum , Kon Plong , DKH 4696 ( HN , LE , MO ); Kontum , Dacuy , LX - VN 2204 ( HN , LE ); Kontum , Kon Plong , Mang La , VH 5069 (HN, LE); Lai Chau , Sin Ho , HAL 9833 ( HN , LE ); Lam Dong , Lac Duong , Bi Dup mt ., VH 3798 ( HN , LE ); Lam Dong , Lac Duong , VH 4138 ( HN , LE ); Lang Son , Bac Son , HAL 6789 ( HN , LE ); Lao Cai , Van Ban , HAL 2002 ( HN , LE ), HAL 2303 ( HN , LE ), HAL 2681 ( HN , LE ); Quangtri , Dongche , Poilane ; Son La , Thuan Chau , HAL 9735 ( HN , LE ); Tuyen Quang , Na Hang , HLF 690 ( HN , LE ); Vanyen , Chapa , Petelot 12628 ( P ); Vinh Phu , Tam Dao , LX - VN 1356 ( HN , LE ) , LX - VH 2382 ( C , HN , LE ).

Note. Widespread and very variable species, particularly on leaf coloration, size of flower, length of spur and form of epichile lobes. Widely collected as a medicinal plant used in traditional oriental medicine.

 

2. A . papillosus Aver.,

2007, Taiwania, 52, 4: 287, fig. 1 & 2A.

Described from northern Vietnam ( Hoa Binh Prov., Mai Chau Distr., Pa Co Municipality , Xa Linh village, Rung Gia forests). Type ( HAL 8978 ) HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Terrestrial herb with 2-4 rosulate petiolate leaves. Leaves ovate to almost circular, shortly acute, 2-4 cm long, velvety dark green, with reticulate network of pink nerves. Scape 9- 12 cm long, tomentose, with lax 3-5 flowers. Floral bracts, triangular-cuneate, acuminate, 8- 10 mm long, sparsely hairy. Ovary 10- 12 mm long, pubescent. Sepals light pink-brown, glabrous or sparsely hairy; dorsal sepal ovate, 6- 7 mm long, acuminate, with slightly upward reflexed apex; lateral sepals oblong-oblique, obtuse, 7- 8 mm long. Petals white, 6.5- 7 mm long, 2- 2.5 mm wide, strongly oblique-falcate, rising from narrow base to oblique broad median part ending in attenuate apex, each on dorsal surface with short longitudinal ridge bearing few massive white, sometime forked capitate papillae. Lip white, with pink-brown tint at the spur apex, 13- 14 mm long. Hypochile boat-shaped, basally with cylindric spur 3.5- 4 mm long; hypochile and spur, placed at narrow angle with mesochile; spur acutely bifid at apex, with 2 large hemispheric sub-sessile glands inside. Mesochile 4-5 mm long, with narrow base and 2 rectangular lateral lobes 2- 2.5 mm wide, 3- 3.5 mm long, denticulate with 5-10 irregular more or less low cuneate blunt dents. Epichile lobes spreading, oblique-rectangular, truncate, entire, 4.5- 5.5 mm long, 2.5 mm wide. Column ovate, 4- 4.5 mm tall, with 2 short vertical wings at front; wings 1- 1.4 mm long, about 1 mm tall, rising at the middle part of column. Anther, narrowly-ovate, acuminate, 3.5 mm long. Fig. 27, g-m; 31, f .

Ecology. Broad-leaved humid evergreen forests on rocky limestone, commonly in limestone pockets with deep soil. 900-1000 m. Fl. July August. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Hoa Binh ).

Note . Species is known up to now on alone type collection. From all known representatives of the genus A. papillosus differs in petals bearing on dorsal surface short longitudinal ridge ornamented with massive, often forked capitate papillae. On other floral morphology this species approaches to Taiwanese A. koshunensis Hayata, from which differs in large and broad, shallowly dentate side lobes of mesochile. Obviously, this species is local endemic of rocky limestone remnant highlands spreading in north-western Vietnam along Laotian border.

Fig. 27. Corymborkis veratrifolia: a flower, b sepal, petal, lip and column; Tropidia angulosa:
c flower, side and frontal view; T. curculigoides: d flower; Anoectochilus roxburghii: e
flower and flattened column and tepals, f spur section with glands; A. papillosus: g
flowering plant and leaf, h, i flower, frontal and side view, j dorsal surface of median sepal
and petals, k flattened tepals without lip, l column, ventral and dorsal view, m pollinarium.

 

3. A . calcareus Aver.,

1996, Bot. Journ. ( St. Petersburg ) 81, 10: 75, fig. 2.

Described from northern Vietnam (Prov. Hoa Binh , near 1 km of Mai Chau to the E). Type (20 May 1995, Averyanov et al., s.n. ) LE.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb with 3-4 rosulate petiolate leaves. Leaves ovate, acute, to 7 cm long, dark velvety gray-brown to black, with dense network of silvery-white to light pink nerves. Scape hairy, 8- 12 cm long, with 3-7 lax flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, tomentose, as long as ovary. Ovary tomentose, 8- 10 mm long. Sepals light green, sparsely hairy; dorsal sepal broadly-ovate, 4-5 mm long, acute; lateral sepals ovate, oblique, 6- 7 mm long. Petals white, greenish to the apex, strongly falcate, attenuate to the base and apex, as long as median sepal. Lip white, 13- 15 mm long, basally with small conical, flattened spur in a wide angle to a claw; spur 3 mm wide, 2.5 mm wide, with 2 capitate gland. Claw 4-5 mm long, with 10-15 pair of dents or short fringes on flanges. Epichile lobes obovate, 5- 6 mm long 2.5- 3 mm wide. Column 3 mm tall, with 2 small vertical wings broadening proximally, not entering into spur. Anther ovate, acute. Fig. 28, a-e; 31, g .

Ecology. Coniferous and b road-leaved forests on rocky limestone, commonly in limestone pockets with deep soil. 450- 1600 m . Fl. January - February. Occasional (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan, Cao Bang , Ha Giang, Hoa Binh , Lai Chau, Ninh Binh, Quang Binh, Son La, Thanh Hoa ).

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HLF 803 (HN, LE), HAL 4735 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Nguyen Binh, CBL 1583 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Bac Me, HAL 6485 (HN); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, NTH 3573 (HN, LE), HG 74 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh , Mai Chau , HAL 843 (HN), DKH 7801 (HN, LE, MO), DKH 8028 (HN, LE, MO); Lai Chau, Sin Ho, HAL 10058 (HN); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong national park, HAL 1696 (HN); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6055 (HN); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, Ke Bang, VH 4764 (HN, LE), HAL 5984 (HN), HAL 5866 (HN, LE photo); Son La, Moc Chau, DKH 7437 (JM. LE, MO), HAL 9305 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 2994 (HN, LE photo), HAL 3439 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Quan Hoa, HAL 3742 (HN), Son La, Yen Chau, HAL 9512 (HN, LE).

Note. Typical herbaceous element of rocky limestone on the north of Vietnam .

 

4. A . albolineatus Par. et Reichenb.f.,

1874, Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 30: 141. A. siamensis Schlechter, 1906, Feddes Repert. 2: 83; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 32; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 46; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11.

Described from Myanmar (" Burma - Moulmein "). Type (" Parish 325 ") K (holotype), W (isotype).

Terrestrial herb with 2-3 shortly petiolate leaves in basal rosette. Leaves broadly-ovate, acute, 1.5-4 cm long, velvety dark-green to brown-green or nearly black, often with broad irregular median longitudinal white to yellowish stripe or reticulation of pink to yellowish veins. Scape pubescent, with 2-3 acuminate yellowish bracts, 6- 15 cm tall, with 1-8 lax flowers. Floral bracts, ovate, acuminate, pubescent. Ovary pubescent, 5- 10 mm long. Sepals sub-similar, ovate-oblong, 7- 10 mm long, acute, sparsely hairy. Petals narrowly-obovate, slightly oblique, as long as median sepal, shortly acuminate. Lip 5- 7 mm long, spurred. Spur directed parallel with ovary and claw, 1.5- 3 mm long, broadly-conical, notched at the apex, with 2 large peltate, warty glands. Mesochile with 4-7 pairs of long fringes along flanges. Epichile lobes narrowly-obovate to oblique-flabellate, more or less truncate, 5- 7 mm long. Column, at front with 2 large narrowly-triangular, parallel wings not entering to the spur and 2 short broad rostellar arms. Anther narrowly-ovate, acute, 3- 4 mm long. Fig. 28, f-h; 31, h.

Ecology. H umid broad-leaved forests on silicate soils. 1100- 170 0 m . Fl. November January. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Kon Tum, Lam Dong, Lao Cai). Myanmar , Thailand .

Studied specimens. Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 1675 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Hon Giao ridge, VH 4132 (HN, LE); Muang Xen, Hayata s.n. (TI).

 

5. A . annamensis Aver.,

2005, Rheedea, 15, 2: 83, fig. 1 & 4a,b.

Described from central Vietnam (Thua Thien Hue Prov., Huong Thuy Distr., Duong Hoa Municipality , Huong Thuy forest enterprise ... Mang Chan ridge). Type ( HAL 8177 ) HN (holotype), LE (isotype). d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0023/HAL8177 .

Terrestrial herb with 2-3 rosulate, shortly petiolate leaves. Leaves ovate, finely undulate along margin, shortly acute, 3- 5 cm long, dark velvety green, olive-green to nearly black, with reticulate network of pink nerves. Scape 7- 16 cm long, tomentose with 3-10 lax flowers. Floral bracts triangular-cuneate, acuminate, 4- 6 mm long. Ovary 6- 10 mm long, densely pubescent with simple and glandular hairs. Sepals dark olive-brown to reddish-brown, pubescent; dorsal sepal ovate, 4.5 mm long, acuminate, with strongly upward reflexed apex; lateral sepals oblong , obtuse, with broad asymmetric base, 7- 9 mm long. Petals light green, 4.5 mm long, 3- 3.2 mm wide, strongly oblique-falcate, rising from very narrow base to oblique broad apical part ending in attenuate tip. Lip white with light green fringes, about 17 mm long. Hypochile boat-shaped, basally with broadly-conical spur, 3 mm long, 2 mm broad; spur not bent, placed in one line with lip, notched at apex, with 2 large flat stalked semicircular glands inside. Mesochile form narrow claw 1.5 mm long, with fleshy upturned margins and 2-5 back reflexed lateral dents or fringes 1- 3.5 mm long. Epichile lobes spreading, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 8 mm long, 3 mm wide. Column 5- 5.5 mm tall, with 2 vertical wings at front; wings 2- 2.5 mm long cuneate or narrowly-triangular, acute, rising from the middle of the column. Anther large, narrowly-ovate, about 4 mm long. Fig. 28, i-l; 31, i; 32, a .

Ecology. Humid broad-leaved evergreen forests on silicate soils. 100-1000 m. Fl. March May. Occasional (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Thua Thien Hue , Vinh Phuc).

Studied specimens. Tam Dao, LX-VN 874 (LE); Thua Thien Hue , A Luoi, HAL 7172 (HN), HAL 7271 (HN; LE), HAL 7621 (HN; LE), HAL 7766 (HN); Thua Thien Hue , Nam Dong, HAL 6897 (HN; LE); Thua Thien - Hue , Xuan Loc, HLF 1667 (HN, LE), HLF 1825 (HN, LE).

Note. Species superficially resemble widespread and common species A. roxburghii , but actually belongs to group of species with straight (not bent) short spur like A. brevilabris and A. siamensis . This often overlooked species may be widespread and quite common in low mountain areas of Vietnam .

 

Fig. 28. Anoectochilus calcareus: a flowering plant, b flower, c flattened tepals, d flattened
lip and section of spur, e column, dorsal and ventral view; A. albolineatus: f, g flattened
tepals and lip, h column ventral and side view; A. annamensis: i flowering plant, j flattened
tepals, k flattened lip and section of spur, l column and section of spur, side view;
A. lylei: m, n flattened tepals and lip, o column and spur section, frontal view, p column, side view.

 

6. A . lylei Rolfe ex Downie,

1925, Kew Bull. 1925: 411; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 33 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 44; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11.

Described from Thailand ("Si m ... Me Awn, 750 m "). Type ("Lyle in herb. Kerr, 297 ") K.

Terrestrial herb with 2-4 petiolate leaves in basal rosette. Leaves ovate to almost circular, 2- 6 cm long, shortly acute, dark green, green-brown to nearly black with reticulated yellowish to pink nerves, rarely with only 1 or 3 longitudinal colored veins. Scape densely pubescent, with 2-4 yellowish, broad, acuminate bracts, 6- 15 cm tall, with 1-8 lax flowers. Floral bracts ovate, acuminate, pubescent, 7- 14 mm long. Ovary 10- 16 mm long, densely pubescent. Sepals sub-similar, ovate-oblong, 7- 11 mm long, shortly acute, hairy. Petals obovate, as long as median sepal, strongly oblique, rising from narrow base to broad median part and oblique attenuate apex. Lip 15- 18 mm long, spurred. Spur cylindric, directed parallel with ovary and claw, rare at wide angle with claw, 4-5 mm long, with 2 large peltate, warty glands. Mesochile boat-shaped, with short claw, along flanges slightly erose or with few short irregular denticles. Epichile lobes lanceolate to broadly-lanceolate, 8- 10 mm long, 1.2- 1.8 mm wide. Column 3- 4 mm tall, at front with 2 narrowly-triangular, acute wings, not entering to the spur and short bifid rostellum. Anther ovate, acute, 4 mm long. Fig. 28, m-p; 32, b.

Ecology. Closed h umid broad-leaved forests on silicate soils. 600- 200 0 m . Fl. November January. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Dak Nong, Gia Lai, Khanh Hoa, Kon Tum, Lam Dong, Quang Tri ). Thailand .

Studied specimens. Da Tan La river, Col de Pren, Tixier drawing (P); Dak Nong, Dak Glong, Ta Dung mt., HLF 5656 (HN, LE); Dalat, Evrard 1944, 2029 (P); Gialai-Kontum, 1985, Averyanov et al., LX-VN s.n. (HN, LE); Khanh Hoa, Khanh Son, Hon Giao ridge, VH 4276 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 2278a (HN, LE); Kontum, Kon Plong, Mang La, VH 5599a (HN, LE); Kontum, Sa Tay, Chu Mom Ray , P-7906a (HN, LE); Langbian, Rolfe; Phu Sapoum, Blao, Poilane 23804 (P); Quangtri, Poilane 11288 (P).

7. A . brevilabris Lindl.,

1840, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 499. A. griffithii Hook.f., 1890, Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 96.- A. sikkimensis King et Pantl., 1896, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 65: 124; id., 1898, Ann. Bot. Gard. (C lcutt ) 8, tab. 391; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 46; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11. - A. chapaensis Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. ( Paris ) 2 ser. 3, 7: 679; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 33 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 44; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 10. - A. tridentatus Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 33, fig. 11; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 44; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11.

Described from NE. India (" India , Assam "). Type (" Mack s.n. ") K.

Terrestrial herb with 3-4 petiolate leaves in basal rosette. Leaves dark green, with yellow to pink nerve reticulation, ovate, to broadly-ovate, shortly acute, to 6 cm long. Scape pubescent, to 15 cm long, with 1-6 lax flowers and 2-3 acuminate sterile bracts. Floral bracts ovate, acuminate, 6- 10 mm long. Sepals sub-similar, olive-green, oblong, obtuse, 6- 8 mm long. Petals oblique-falcate, as long as median sepal. Lip white, spurred, 8- 10 mm long; spur short, 3- 4 mm long, broadly-conical, bifid at the apex, with 2 rather small peltate glands. Mesochile with 3-4 pairs of short blunt teeth on flanges. Epichile lobes divergent, flabellate-triangular, truncate, 7- 8 mm long. Column 3- 4 mm tall with 2 narrowly-triangular, obtuse, parallel wings at front and broad bifid acute rostellum. Fig. 29, a , b.

Ecology. H umid broad-leaved forests on silicate soils. 900- 150 0 m . Fl. December February. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lao Cai, Vinh Phuc). Bhutan , NE. India.

Studied specimens. Tamdao, Hayata s.n. (TI); Tonkin : Cha-p , Petelot 5147 (P); Vinh Phu, Tam Dao, LX-VN 874 (HN, LE).

Note. Some specimens from northern Vietnam have intermediate morphology between this species and A. annamensis .

 

Cheirostylis Blume,

1825, Bijdr. 6, fig. 16; id., 1825, ibid. 8: 413.

Type: C. montana Blume.

Small terrestrial, lithophytic and epiphytic sympodial herbs. Rhizome creeping, with very swollen, succulent internodes and roots modified into ridges or pillows densely covered by root hairs. Stem ascending, leafy at the base, with erect scape and lax terminal spike. Leaves few, spirally arranged, petiolate or sessile, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, usually dull green, acute. Scape leafless, with 1-5 sterile hyaline bracts. Flowers small, sessile, resupinate, hardly opening. Sepals sub-similar, connate for half of their length to form a swollen tube. Petals connivent or joined to median sepal forming hood. Lip spurless. Hypochile concave, with various papillae on lateral sides, or lacking any glands. Epichile reflexed, 2-lobed, rarely entire, connected to hypochile by entire simple short claw. Column short, erect, with 2 thin prominent stelidia and 2 rostellar arms. Anther triangular-ovate, acute. Pollinia 2, sectile, with stipe and viscidium. Stigma with 2, small, convex, separated lobes.

50(13) species. Subtropical and tropical zone of the Eastern Hemisphere with main center of diversity in mainland SE. Asia.

 

Key to species

 

1. Leafy stem creeping; leaves distant, distichous, sessile, 4- 7 mm long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. C . serpens

-. Leafy stem ascending to erect; leaves rosulate, spirally arranged, petiolate, usually longer than 7 mm . . . . . 2

 

2. Inflorescence sub-sessile, scape less than 1 cm long, much shorter than apical leaves. . . . 2. C . inabai

-. Leafy stem ascending to erect; leaves rosulate, spirally arranged, petiolate, usually longer than 7 mm ; scape taller than 2 cm . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

 

3. Stem erect; leaves distant in lower part of stem, erect to sub-erect, to 6 cm long, cuneate at the base, sub-succulent, brightly uniform green. glossy; stigma lobes cylindric-conical . . . . . 3. C . foliosa

-. Stem ascending; leaves usually rosulate at the base of stem, spreading, less than 4 cm long, broadly-triangular to cordate at the base, thin, velvety dull-green to dark green, commonly with dark veins; stigma lobes hemispheric . . . . . . . . . 4

 

4. Epichile narrow, simple, ligulate-oblong, longer than broad; hypochile at the base without glands or with hardly visible rudimentary warts . . . . . 4. C . takeoi

-. Epichile distinctly broader than long, often 2-lobed, with toothed or fringed lobes; hypochile at the base with slender finger-like glands placed along lateral veins . . . . . . . . . 5

 

5. Lobes of epichile deeply toothed of fringed along margin . . . . . 6

-. Lobes of epichile entire, finely irregular denticulate or shallowly crenulate . . . . . 10

 

6. Scape 6- 9 cm long with 1-2 flowers . . . . . 7

-. Scape normally longer than 9 cm , with 1-10 flowers. . . . . 8

 

7. Leaves glossy, more or less rigid, silvery-gray to light green, with network of dark green nerves; petals narrowly-obovate to oblanceolate; epichile lobes with 5-8 triangular dents; hypochile with numerous fat conic glands along lateral veins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. C . marmorifolia

-. Leaves uniform dull gray-green, thin and soft; petals filiform-linear; epichile lobes with 4 finger-like fringes; hypochile with 2 slender glands along lateral veins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. C . filipetala

 

8. Sepals white, 3.5-5 mm long; epichile 1.5- 3.5 mm long and wide; epichile lobes usually with 4-7 dents; hypochile on sides with 2(3) glands . . . . . 7. C . chinensis

-. Sepals light olive-green to greenish-pink, 4.5- 6.5 mm long; epichile 4- 7 mm long and wide; epichile lobes usually with 7-12 dents or fringes; hypochile on sided with 3-5 or more glands . . . . . 9

 

9. Epichile lobes deep lacinate, with long finger-like fringes; leaves usually dark green with light green median stripe . . . . . 8. C . cochinchinensis

-. Epichile lobes deeply dentate, with narrowly-triangular teeth; leaves usually light dull gray-green with dark veins . . . . . 9. C . yunnanensis

 

10. Scape less than 5 cm tall; lip 5- 5.5 mm long; epichile entire, transverse-rhomboid . . . . . 10. C . thanmoiensis

-. Scape normally taller than 5 cm ; lip longer than 6 mm ; epichile distinctly emarginate or 2-lobed . . . . 11

 

11. Epichile 2- 3 mm wide, emarginate to 2-lobed, with entire semi-circular lobes . . . . . 11. C . bipunctata

-. Epichile more than 5 mm wide, distinctly 2-lobed, with flabellate to oblique-rectangular lobes, crenulate or denticulate along margin . . . . . 12

 

11. Epichile lobes spreading, to 4 mm long, shallowly crenulate or broadly dentate, with 2-4(5) blunt-roundish indistinct dents; petals obovate, much broadening to the apex . . . . . 12. C . latipetala

-. Epichile lobes convergent, 10-14 long, irregular denticulate, with low irregular rounded teeth; petals elliptic, narrowing to the base and apex . . . . . 13. C . spathulata

 

1. C . serpens Aver.,

2005, Rheedea, 15, 2: 87, fig. 5 & 8a, b.

Described from northern Vietnam (Quang Binh Prov., Bo Trach Distr., Phong Nha - Ke Bang national park ...). Type (24 January 2005, L .Averyanov, P.K.Loc, N.T.Vinh, HAL 6092 ) HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Dwarf creeping epiphyte or lithophyte with, succulent green stem densely adpressed to the ground. Stem with many distichous, sessile, cordate, acute or apiculate, brightly emerald-green leaves, 4- 7 mm long, 4-5 wide. Scape leafless, ascending, 1.5- 1.8 cm long, sparsely haired, with 2-3 light greenish, ovate, apiculate bracts, and 1-3 flowers. Sepals green, obtuse, sparsely haired, 3.5 mm long, connate on half way to tip from base; dorsal sepal ovate, about 2.5 mm wide, lateral sepals narrowly-ovate to oblong, about 1.5 mm wide. Petals white, spathulate, falcate, broadening from very narrow base to rounded apex, 3- 3.5 mm long, 1- 1.4 mm wide. Lip white about 2.5- 3.5 mm long. Hypochile concave, with central swelling and 2 slender, rather straight gland on each side. Epichile white, with 2 light olive-green to yellow oblong spots at the center, 4 mm wide, 2-lobed; lobes squarish, entire, slightly plicate. Column 2 mm tall, with large, narrowly-ovate anther; rostellum arms subulate, acute, as long as or little longer than anther; stelidia large, of the same length, spathulate, with obtuse to roundish apex. Fig. 29, c-e; 32, c.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved forests on rocky limestone . 600- 900 m . Fl. January - February. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan , Quang Binh).

Studied specimens. Bac Kan , Cho Don, HAL 4804 (HN, LE).

 

2. C . inabai Hayata,

1914, Ic. Pl. Formos. 4: 108, fig. 56. C. pingbianensis K.L.Lang, 1996, Acta Phytotax. Sin., 34, 6: 635. - C. phamhoangii N.T.Tich, 2001, Orch. Vietnam 1: 197, nom. invalid.

Described from Taiwan ("Rinkoho, ad 5000 ped. alt."). Type ( H.Inaba, Aug., 1911 ) TI?

Terrestrial creeping herb with ascending fleshy pink stem 10- 15 cm tall. Leaves distant and small at the base, clustered at the apex with 4-5 narrowly-ovate, attenuate, petiolate, green leaves, 3-4 cm long, 1.5-2 cm wide. Petiole 1- 1.5 cm long. Inflorescence very short, 1-2 cm long, secund, with 3-7 flowers, clustered in dense head-like spike. Ovary narrowly-obovoid, to 1 cm long, glabrous. Flowers pure white. Sepals sub-similar, forming cylindric tube 1 cm long, with 3 teeth at apex. Petals broadly-lanceolate, 1 cm long, 3 mm wide. Lip 1.3 cm long. Hypochile saccate, boat-shaped, at the base with few small close glands along each lateral vein. Epichile conduplicate, broad, 2-lobed, 6- 8 mm wide; lobes spreading; each lobe dissected into 5 close finger-like segments 3- 4 mm long, 0.5- 0.6 mm wide. Column short. Stelidia narrow-parallel, 4 mm long, sub-equal in length with rostellum arms. Anther broafly-ovate, much shorter than rostellum. Fig. 29, f-i.

Ecology. Ericaceous thickets on silicate soils along tops of ridges. 2 000- 2150 m . Fl. September. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Lam Dong). S. China, Taiwan .

Studied specimens. Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Langbian mt., T.07.09.93a (icon Cheirostylis phamhoangii , N.T.Tich, 2001, l .c.: 199)

Note. Very rare species known in Vietnam by the only collection.

 

3. C . foliosa Aver.,

2008, Taiwania, 52, 4: 295, fig. 2e & 7.

Described from northern Vietnam ( Son La Prov., Moc Chau Distr., Chieng Hac Municipality ). Type (31 Oct. 2006, N.T.Hiep, L.Averyanov, P.V.The, HAL 9415 ) HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Erect lithophytic herb. Stem 10- 16 cm tall, leafy and glabrous in lower third. Leaves 2-4, sessile or sub-sessile, narrowly-ovate, erect, acute, 2.5- 6 cm long, pure light green, sub-succulent, glossy. Scape 8- 14 cm long, densely pubescent in upper part. Rachis densely pubescent, 1.5-2.5 cm long with 5-8 flowers. Floral bracts broadly-ovate, acuminate, sparsely glandular ciliate along margin, 5- 6 mm long. Ovary, narrowly-ovate, 4- 4.5 mm long, densely pubescent with glandular hairs. Sepals olive-green to dull pink-brown, sub-similar, ovate, 2.8- 3.2 mm long, connate on 2/3 from the base, sparsely pubescent. Petals white, spathulate, falcate, broadening from narrow base to rhomboid rounded apex, slightly shorter than sepals. Lip white, 3.5 mm long and wide. Hypochile concave, cup-like, 1.5 mm across, with 1 large longitudinal cristate straight ridge along lateral veins. Epichile papillose, 1.2 mm wide, 2-lobed, lobes square, entire or with 2 indistinct rounded dents. Column 2 mm long, 1.4 mm wide; anther cup lanceolate; rostellum arms narrowly spathulate, slightly shorter than anther cup; stelidia shorter, thick, cylindrical, obtuse, with papillose surface. Fig. 29, j-o; 32, d.

Ecology. Broad-leaved forests on rocky limestone, commonly on mountain tops. 1200- 1300 m . Fl. September - November. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Son La ).

Note. Very rare species known by the only type collection.

 

4. C . takeoi (Hayata) Schleichter,

1919, Fedde Repert. Beih. 4: 171; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20. Arisanorchis takeoi Hayata, 1914, Ic. Pl. Formos. 4: 110, fig. 57. - Cheirostylis eglandulosa Aver., 1996, Bot. Journ. ( Leningrad ), 81, 10: 80, fig. 5.

Described from Taiwan (Arisan: inter Karapin et Suisharyo, ad 3300 ped. alt.). Type (T akeo Ito, Mart. 28, 1914 ) TI?

Lithophytic herb 5- 16 cm tall with 1-3 basal, shortly petiolate leaves. Leaf blade dull silvery-green with unclear green vein network, ovate to broadly-ovate, to 3.5 cm long. Scape and rachis pubescent, rachis 0.5-1 cm long, with 1-5 lax, hardly opening flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, 3- 8 mm long, not longer than ovary, dense tomentose. Ovary obovoid, 3- 7 mm long, densely pubescent. Sepals outside sparsely pubescent, light olive-pink, narrowly-ovate, 5- 7 mm long, joined on 2/3 of their length into a tube. Petals white, free, falcate-lanceolate, 5- 6.5 mm long, 1- 1.5 mm wide. Lip white, 6- 7 mm long. Hypochile concave, having no glands or with hardly visible rudimentary papillae inside. Epichile strongly bended down. narrowly-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, entire, obtuse at the apex. Column 1- 1.5 mm tall. Fig. 29, p-s; 32, e.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved and coniferous mossy forests on rocky limestone. 6 00-1000 m. Fl. March

- April. Not rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Cao Bang , Ha Giang, Lang Son). Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan .

Studied specimens. Cao Bang , Tra Linh, Averyanov et al., CB32a , 22 Oct. 1995 (LE); Cao Bang , Bao Lac, CBL 1372 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Trach An, 5 Dec. 1998, Averyanov et al., s.n. (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Dong Van, CBL 1760b (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quang Ba, DKH 4895 (HN, LE, MO); Lang Son, Bac Son, HAL 6708 (HN, LE), HAL 6709a (HN, LE).

Note . Typical element of herbaceous lithophytic vegetation on mossy rocky solid limestone.

 

5. C . marmorifolia Aver.,

2000, Turczaninowia, 3, 2: 19. C. marmorata Aver., 1999, Lindleyana, 14, 4: 216, non Lindl. ex Lem., 1848.

Described from northern Vietnam ( Cao Bang Province , Ha Lang District, Thanh Nhat Municipality ). Type (27 November 1998, L .Averyanov, P.K.Loc, N.X.Tam, CBL s.n. ) LE.

Dwarf lithophytic herb with creeping chain rhizome and ascending short stem to 6 mm tall with 2-4 rosulate leaves. Leaves shortly petiolate, ovate, rigid, to 2 cm long, light green to silvery white with contrasting dark green veins. Scape erect, pubescent, 6- 8 cm tall, with 1-2 flowers. Floral bracts pubescent, 3- 4 mm long, shorter than ovary. Ovary densely pubescent, 4 mm long. Sepals olive-green, pubescent, ovate, 5 mm long, joined on 2/3 of their length forming tube. Petals white, oblanceolate, falcate, 5.5 mm long. Lip, 8 mm long, white, with 2 green spots at the base of epichile. Hypochile concave, with fleshy central keel and numerous fleshy glands on each side. Epichile 2-lobed, lobes deeply fringed, with 6-7 cuneate teeth. Column 2.5 mm tall. Fruit ovoid capsule 4 mm long. Fig. 30, a-e; 32, f .

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved and coniferous mossy forests on rocky limestone . 400- 1500 m . Fl. December - March. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan , Cao Bang , Son La).

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be national park, HLF 508 (HN, LE), HLF 650 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Bao Lac, CBL 1485 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Tra Linh, 27 May 1997, L .Averyanov, N.T.Hiep, VH s.n. (LE); Son La, Yen Chau, DKH 7203 (HN, LE).

Fig. 29. Anoectochilus brevilabris: a flattened tepals and lip, b column, frontal and side view;
Cheirostylis serpens: c flowering plant, d flattened tepals, e column, side view; C. inabai:
f flowering plant, g flowers, h flattened sepals, petal and lip, i column and lip, side view;
C. foliosa: j flowering plants, k flower, l, m flattened tepals and lip, n column, dorsal,
frontal and side views, o floral bract; C. takeoi: p flowering plant and leaf, q flower, r
flattened tepals, s lip, side view.

 

6. C . filipetala Aver.,

2003, in Aver. et Averyanova, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20, 76, fig. 4.

Described from southern Vietnam (Kon Tum Prov., Sa Thay Distr., Municipality Sa Son, Chu Mom mountain ...). Type (17 January 2000, P.K.Loc et al., P- 8498 ) HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Epiphytic herb with ascending leafy stem to 4 cm long and 3-5 distant petiolate sheathing leaves. Leaf blade dull green, triangular-ovate to cordate, acute, to 1.1 cm long, 0.8 cm wide. Scape 5- 9 cm tall, densely pubescent, with 1-2 flowers. Floral bracts triangular, 3-5 mm long, much shorter than ovary. Ovary 8- 10 mm long, glabrous. Sepals yellowish-white, sparsely hairy, 4 mm long, dorsal sepal broadly-ovate, lateral sepals narrowly-ovate acute. Petals white 4 mm long, filiform, slightly broadening to the apex. Lip white, with 2 light green spots at the epichile base, 6 mm long. Hypochile concave, boat-shaped, at the base with 2 slender, finger-like glands along lateral veins. Epichile 2-lobed, lobes fringed, with 4 finger-like segments each. Column narrow, 3 mm long, with 2 long stelidia and rostellum arms. Anther narrowly-ovate, acite, 1.5 mm long. Fruit narrowly-ellipsoid, 8- 11 mm long. Fig. 30, f-i.

Ecology. Primary w et broad-leaved closed forests on granite. 9 00-1000 m. Fl. January. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Kon Tum ).

Note. Very rare species known on the only type collection.

 

7. C . chinensis Rolfe,

1895, in Hemsl. Ann. Bot. ( London ) 9: 158; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 35 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 41; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20.

Described from Taiwan and Hongkong ("Formos ... ; Hongkong"). Lectotype (" Henry, 320 ") - K.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb. Stem 6- 30 cm tall, with 1-5 leaves at the base. Leaves dull gay-green, narrowly-ovate to ovate-cordate, acute, 1-3 cm long. Scape tomentose, to 22 cm long. Rachis to 1.5 cm long, tomentose, with 1-10 flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, 5- 10 mm long, sparsely hairy to sub-glabrous, longer than ovary. Ovary narrowly-obovoid, sparsely pubescent, 4- 7.5 mm long. Sepals white to light greenish, sub-similar, narrowly-ovate, obtuse, 4-5 mm long, joined on 1/2-2/3 of their length, sparsely hairy to sub-glabrous. Petals white, narrowly-obovate, oblique-falcate, obtuse, narrowing to the base, same length as sepals. Lip 6- 7 mm long, white, with 2 greenish spots at the base of epichile. Hypochile concave, boat shaped, at the base with 2(3) slender finger-like recurved glands along lateral veins. Epichile 2-lobed; lobes spreading, flabellate, 1.5- 3.5 mm long and wide, with 4-7 triangular to narrowly-triangular teeth. Column 2- 2.5 mm tall, with sub-equal narrowly-triangular, acute stelidia and subulate rostellar arms. Fruit obovoid capsule to 9 mm long. Fig. 30, j, k; 32, g .

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved and coniferous mossy forests on rocky limestone . 300- 1550 m . Fl. December - April. Not rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan , Ha Giang, Lang Son, Quang Binh, Son La). Myanmar , Hong Kong , Taiwan .

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HLF 744 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Dong Van, HAL 8598 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quang Ba, DKH 4894 (HN, LE, MO), DKH 5098 (HN, LE, MO); Ha Giang, Vi Xuyen, DKH 6309 (HN, LE, MO), DKH 6511 (HN, LE, MO); Lang Son, Bac Son, HAL 6708 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6056 (HN, LE), HAL 6114a (HN, LE), HAL 6196 (HN, LE), HAL 6352 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 5869 (HN, LE); Son La, Moc Chau, DKH 7509 (HN, LE, MO); Son La, Yen Chau, DKH 7111 (HN, LE, MO).

Note . Typical element of herbaceous lithophytic vegetation on mossy rocky solid limestone.

 

8. C . cochinchinensis Blume,

1859, Coll. Orch. Arch. Ind. Jap.: 55; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 35 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 41; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20. C. flabellata auct. non Wight: Gagnep., 1933, Fl. Gen. Indochine 6, 4: 547.

Described from southern Vietnam ( Tourane , Vietnam ). Type (" Gaudichaud 62 ") - P.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb. Stem 8- 25 cm tall, with 1-4 leaves at the base. Leaves dark green with light green median stripe, triangular-ovate to cordate, acute, 1- 3.5 cm long. Scape sparsely hairy, to 22 cm long. Rachis to 1.5 cm long, glabrous or sparsely hairy, with 1-10 flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, 5- 10 mm long, glabrous, shorter than ovary. Ovary narrowly-obovoid, glabrous, 5- 8 mm long. Sepals dull greenish to pink, sub-similar, narrowly-ovate to ovate, obtuse, 4.5- 6 mm long, joined on 1/2-2/3 of their length, glabrous. Petals white, narrowly-obovate, oblique-falcate, obtuse, narrowing to the base, same length as sepals. Lip 8- 12 mm long, white, with triangular green papillose area at the base of epichile. Hypochile concave, boat shaped, at the base with 3-5 slender finger-like recurved glands along lateral veins. Epichile 2-lobed; lobes spreading, flabellate, 4- 6 mm long and wide, deeply laciniate into 6-10 narrowly-triangular finger-like segments. Column 2.5- 3 mm tall, with sub-equal narrowly-triangular, acute stelidia and subulate rostellar arms. Fig. 30, l ; 32, h.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved and coniferous mossy forests on rocky limestone . 700- 900 m . Fl. January - February. Occasional (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Quang Binh, Quang Nam Da Nang ). Taiwan .

Studied specimens. Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6197 (HN); d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0006/HAL619 7.

Note . Typical element of herbaceous lithophytic limestone vegetation in central Vietnam .

 

9. C . yunnanensis Rolfe,

1896, Kew Bull. 1896: 201; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 35 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 41; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20.

Described from S. China (" Yunnan : ... at Mengtse"). Type (" Hancock, 25 ") - K.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb. Stem 8- 30 cm tall, with 1-5 leaves at the base. Leaves triangular-ovate to cordate, acute, 1-4 cm long. Scape tomentose, to 25 cm long. Rachis to 1.5 cm long, tomentose, with 1-8 flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, 5- 11 mm long, tomentose, longer than ovary. Ovary narrowly-obovoid, pubescent, 4- 8 mm long. Sepals dull greenish to pink, sub-similar, narrowly-ovate to ovate, obtuse, 5- 6.5 mm long, joined on 1/2-2/3 of their length, pubescent. Petals white, narrowly-obovate, oblique-falcate, obtuse, narrowing to the base, same length as sepals. Lip 8- 12 mm long, white, with 2 green spots at the base of epichile. Hypochile concave, boat shaped, at the base with 3-5 slender finger-like recurved glands along lateral veins. Epichile 2-lobed; lobes spreading, flabellate, 4- 7 mm long and wide, with 6-10 triangular to narrowly-triangular teeth. Column 2.5- 3 mm tall, with sub-equal narrowly-triangular, acute stelidia and subulate rostellar arms. Fruit obovoid capsule to 12 mm long. Fig. 30, m , n; 32, i.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved and coniferous mossy forests on rocky limestone . 50- 1200 m . Fl. February - April. Not rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan , Cao Bang , Ha Giang, Hanoi , Lang Son, Quang Binh, Tuyen Quang). N.E. India , S. China, Thailand .

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be national park, HLF 510 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Bao Lac, CBL 1371 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Dong Van, NTH 3526 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quang Ba, DKH 4893 (HN, LE, MO), DKH 5097 (HN, LE, MO); Hai Phong, Cat Ba, LX-VN 3600 (HN, LE), LX-VN 3426/16 (HN, LE); Lang Son, Bac Son, HAL 6709 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Quang Ninh, HAL 6307 (HN, LE); Quang Ninh, Ha Long Bay, NTH 5468 (HN, LE); Tonkin, Notre Dame, Tu-vu, Balansa 2003 (P); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, NTH 2060 (HN, LE).

Note . Vicarious species replacing C. cochinchinensis in limestone areas of northern Vietnam where it is typical element of herbaceous lithophytic vegetation on rocky solid limestone.

 

10. C . thanmoiensis (Gagnep.) Ormerod,

2002, Lindleyana 17, 4: 194; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20, 79. - Zeuxine thanmoiensis Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. ( Paris ) 2 ser. 3, 3: 327; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 38 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 38.

Described from northern Vietnam (" Tonkin : Than-moi"). Type ("19 Jan. 1886, Balansa 313 ") P (holotype), K (isotype).

Stem 6- 8 cm tall, with 3-5 leaves at the base. Leaves, triangular-cordate, acute, 1.2- 1.7 cm long, petiolate. Scape pubescent, 3-4 cm long with 3-4 flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, to 6 mm long, pubescent, shorter than ovary. Ovary narrowly-obovoid, pubescent, to 8 mm long. Sepals sub-similar, narrowly-ovate, obtuse, 4-5 mm long, joined on 2/3 of their length, hairy. Petals, narrowly-obovate, oblique, same length as sepals. Lip 5- 5.5 mm long. Hypochile concave, at the base with 1-2 slender finger-like glands along lateral veins. Epichile entire, transversely-rhomboid, about 1 mm long, 2.5 mm wide. Column short, with long falcate rostellum arms and short subulate stelidia. Fig. 30, o-q.

Ecology. Not known. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lang Son ).

Note. The species is known up to now by only type collection.

 

11. C . bipunctata Aver.,

1996, Bot. Journ. ( Leningrad ), 81, 10: 78, fig. 4; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20.

Described from northern Vietnam ( N. Vietnam , Prov. Ha Giang, Distr. Quan Ba, around 4 km to SW from Can Ty town.). Type ( Averyanov et al., HG 72 , 27 October 1995 ) LE.

Lithophytic herb 10- 25 cm tall with 2-4 basal, shortly petiolate leaves. Leaf blade dull silvery-green with unclear green vein network, narrowly-ovate to ovate, to 4 cm long. Scape and rachis pubescent, rachis 2-3 cm long, normally with 3-8 lax, hardly opening flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, 4- 8 mm long, not longer than ovary, dense tomentose. Ovary 5- 8 mm long, densely pubescent. Sepals outside sparsely pubescent, light green, narrowly-ovate, 5- 7 mm long, joined on 2/3 of their length into a tube. Petals white or light greenish, free, lanceolate, 5- 6.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide. Lip white or light greenish, 6- 7.5 mm long. Hypochile concave, basally with numerous small glands on each side along lateral veins. Claw with 2 brightly green spot on bended part. Epichile entire emarginate, obcordate, or divided into 2 semi-circular lobes with entire margins. Column 1 mm tall. Anther red. Fruit with obovoid, 8- 10 mm long, 5- 6 mm wide. Fig. 33, a-c.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved and coniferous mossy forests on rocky limestone. 5 00-1000 m. Fl. March - April. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ha Giang ).

Studied specimens. Ha Giang, Quang Ba, DKH 4895/1 (HN, LE, MO).

 

12. C . latipetala Aver. et Averyanova,

2006, Komarovia, 4: 5, fig. 3.

Described from northern Vietnam (" Bac Kan Province , Na Ri Distr., Na Duong village). Type (25 November 2002, D.K.Harder, N.T.Hiep, L.Averyanov, DKH 7659c ) HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb. Stem 5- 20 cm tall, with 1-5 leaves at the base. Leaves velvety dark green to nearly black, petiolate, triangular-ovate to cordate, acute, to 2 cm long. Scape tomentose, to 22 cm long, with 1-4 flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, 5- 8 mm long,, much shorter than ovary. Ovary narrowly-ellipsoid, sparsely pubescent, 5- 6 mm long. Sepals white, glabrous, concave, obtuse, 4 mm long, dorsal sepal broadly ovate, lateral sepals narrowly-ovate, all joined on 2/3 of their length. Petals white, much broadening in apical part, broadly obtuse to slightly emarginate, 4 mm long, 1.5 mm wide. Lip 6- 7 mm long, white, with 2 greenish spots at the base of epichile. Hypochile concave, at the base with 2-3 slender finger-like recurved glands along lateral veins. Epichile 2-lobed, 3 mm long, 6- 7 mm wide; lobes spreading, each with 3-4(5) roundish to broadly triangular blunt teeth. Column 2.5 mm tall, with sub-equal narrow, acute stelidia and rostellar arms. Anther narrowly-ovate, subacute, 1.5 mm long. Fig. 33, d-f; 36, a .

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved and coniferous mossy forests on rocky limestone . 400- 1300 m . Fl. November - December, March. Occasional (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan , Ha Giang, Son La).

Studied specimens. Ha Giang, Meo Vac, HAL 8478 (HN, LE), HAL 8526 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, HAL 8381 (HN, LE); Son La, Muong Lum, DKH 7111 (HN, LE, MO).

Fig. 30. Cheirostylis marmorifolia: a flowering plant and leaf, b flower, c sepals and
petals, d flattened lip, e column, frontal and dorsal view; C. filipetala: f flowering plant
and leaf, g flower, h flattened tepals and lip, i fruit and floral bract; C. chinensis: j
flattened tepals and lip, k column, ovary and floral bract; C. cochinchinensis: l flattened lip;
C. yunnanensis: m flattened tepals and lip, n column, frontal view; C. thanmoiensis: o
flowering plant, p flower, q column and lip, side view.

 

13. C . spathulata J.J.Smith,

1927, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, 3 ser. 9: 32; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 35 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 40; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20. C. grandiflora auct. non Blume: Gagnep., 1933, Fl. Gen. Indochine 6, 4: 548.

Described from Java ("Java, Soerabaj: Goenoeng Kembangan bei Gresik"). Type (" Dorgelo, 2072 ") - BO, L?

Stem 15- 20 cm tall, with 4-6 leaves at the base. Leaves pale gray-green, with dark gray nerves, petiolate, narrowly-ovate to ovate, acute, 1.5-2.5 cm long. Scape 12- 16 cm long, tomentose, with 2-5 flowers. Sepals sub-similar, narrowly-ovate, 7- 10 mm long, joined on 1/2-2/3 of their length, pubescent. Petals oblique-elliptic, narrowing to the apex an base, the same length as sepals. Lip 1.5- 1.7 cm long. Hypochile concave, boat-shaped, at the base with 4-6 small terete glands along lateral veins. Epichile 2-lobed, lobes divergent, triangular-flabellate, truncate, apex wavy, with low irregular rounded teeth. Fig. 33, g ; 36, b.

Ecology. Limestone at low elevations. Fl.? Occurrence in Vietnam needs confirmation (EX?).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably extinct ). Thailand , Java (extinct), Kalimantan .

Studied specimens. Cochinchina, Mt. Chao-lo, Pierre 145 (P).

Note. Insufficiently known species, occurrence of which in Vietnam needs confirmation.

Fig. 31. Corymborkis veratrifolia: a (LX-VN 3779); Tropidia angulosa: b (Averyanov 512
1988 and HAL 5261); T. curculigoides: c (DKH s.n., 1999 Ha Tinh); Anoectochilus roxburghii:
d (HAL 9735), e (HAL 3428, HAL 2303, HAL 2002); A. papillosus: f (HAL 8978, type);
Anoectochilus calcareus: g (DKH s.n., 2002, HAL 5866, HAL 1696, HAL 2994); A. albolineatus:
h (VH 4132); A. annamensis: i (HAL 8177, type).

Fig. 32. Anoectochilus annamensis: a (HAL 6897); A. lylei: b (P 7906a); Cheirostylis serpens:
c (HAL 6092, type); C. foliosa: d (HAL 9415, type); C. takeoi: e (HAL 6708); C. marmorifolia:
f (Averyanov et al., CBL s.n., 1998, type and HLF 508); C. chinensis: g (HAL 6196 and HAL
8598); C. cochinchinensis: h (HAL 6197); C. yunnanensis: i (HAL 6389).

 

Erythrodes Blume

1825, Bijdr.: 410. - Physurus L.C.Rich. ex Lindl., 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. : 501.

Type: E. latifolia Blume.

Terrestrial sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal many flowered raceme. Leaves few, spirally arranged at the base of stem, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, uniformly green, acute. Scape hairy, leafless, with 2-4 sterile bracts. Flowers small, resupinate. Sepals free, pubescent, lateral spreading; petals free or connivent to median sepal forming hood. Lip lying alongside the column, concave, saccate or spurred, not hidden by the sepals; spur or sac with 1 small flat protuberance or flat papillose wart on each side (usually breaking off in dry herbarium material). Epichile in form of small reflexed lamina. Column narrow, erect, apically setaceous, acuminate, with 1 hollow stigma and 2 sectile pollinia having caudicle and viscidium.

20(2) species. Tropical and subtropical Southeast Asia to islands of SW. Pacific.

 

Key to species

 

1. Lip narrowly-oblong, boat-shaped, longer than 5 mm, about 2.5 mm wide, glabrous, at the base with bifid spur longer than 2.5 mm ; epichile sub circular, as wide as lip; sepals 5.5- 7 mm long . . . . . 1. E. hirsuta

-. Lip ovate, concave, 4-5 mm long, 4 mm wide, with dark papillose areas inside, at the base saccate, sac less than 2.5 mm long; epichile broadly-obovate to triangular, as broad as 1/2 of the lip; sepals 4- 5.5 mm long . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. E. blumei

 

1. E. hirsuta (Griff.) Ormerod,

1997, in Seidenf., Contr. Orchid Fl. Thailand , 13: 12. - Goodyera hirsuta Griff., 1851, Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 393. Physurus herpysmoides King et Pantl., 1896, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 65: 124. - Erythrodes herpysmoides (King et Pantl.) Schltr., 1911, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 392. E. seshagiriana A.N.Rao, 1997, Indian Forester 123: 643. - Physurus blumei auct. non Lindl., 1840: Gagnep., 1933, in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 6: 567, p.p. - Erythrodes blumei auct. non (Lindl.) Schlechter, 1905: Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 28; Aver., 1994, Ident. Guide Vietnam . Orch.: 33; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checkl. Orch. Vietnam : 35, p.p.

Described from NE. India ( Assam , on Burmese frontier, towards Nempean, 1837 ). Type ( Griffith s.n. ) lost.

Stem up to 50 cm tall with 3-5 petiolate leaves. Leaf blade oblique-ovate, to 10 cm long, acute. Inflorescence glandular-pubescent, rachis to 10 cm long, with numerous flowers. Floral bracts lanceolate, acuminate, equal or slightly longer than ovary, 8- 15 mm long. Pedicel and ovary glandular-pubescent, 10- 15 mm long. Sepals sub-similar, sparsely glandular pubescent outside, narrowly-ovate, acute, spreading, 5.5- 7 mm long, reddish-brown. Petals whitish, linear-spathulate, dilated at the apex, 5- 6.5 mm long, connivent to dorsal sepal forming hood. Lip red-brown, spurred, 5- 6.5 mm long, oblong, boat-shaped; epichile white, small, transversely oblong or almost circular, entire, deflexed; side-lobes small, erect. Spur short and broad, 2.5- 3.5 mm long, bifid at the apex, inside with 1 low insignificant callosity on each side. Column 4-5 mm long. Fruit elliptic beaked capsule, 12- 15 mm long. Fig. 33, h; 36, c.

Ecology. Wet closed forests, often with bamboo, on any soils. 300- 500 m . Fl. March - May. Not rare (VU).

Distribution: Vietnam (Ha Tinh, Ninh Binh, Quang Tri). Bhutan , NE India, Myanmar , Thailand , S. China .

Studied specimens. Ha Tinh, Huong Son Distr., Son Hong Municipality, HAL 5215 (HN, LE); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong national park, M.V.Xinh et al., MVX 173, CP 1076 (HN, LE); LX-VN 1766, 1767 (HN, LE); Quang Tri, Da Krong, HLF 5776 (HN, LE).

 

2. E. blumei (Lindl.) Schlechter,

1905, in Schum. et Lauterb., Fl. Schutzgeb. Sudsee, Nachtr.: 87; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 28; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 33; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 35. - Physurus blumei Lindl., 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. : 504. - Physurus chinensis Rolfe, 1896, Bull. Misc. Inf. Kew 1896: 200. - Erythrodes chinensis (Rolfe) Schleichter. 1914, Die Orchideen: 117.

Described from NE. India (" India orientali; provincia Sylhet..."). Lectotype (" Wallich, 7397 ") K.

Stem up to 60 cm tall with 3-4 petiolate leaves. Leaf blade oblique-ovate, to 12 cm long, acute. Inflorescence glandular-pubescent, rachis to 15 cm long, with numerous flowers. Floral bracts lanceolate, acuminate, 4- 10 mm long. Pedicel and ovary sparsely pubescent with glandular hairs to sub glabrous, to 14 mm long. Sepals sub-similar, sub glabrous or sparsely glandular pubescent outside, narrowly-ovate, obtuse, spreading, 4- 5.5 mm long, brownish-green with central brown-purple spot. Petals whitish with brown-purple median vein, lanceolate-spathulate, dilated at the apex, 3.5-5 mm long, connivent to dorsal sepal forming hood. Lip pinkish-brown, saccate, 4-5 mm long, obovate, concave; epichile white, broadly-obovate to triangular, entire, deflexed; side-lobes, erect, hemicircular. Sac short, cup-shaped, 1.5- 2.5 m long, inside with 1 low papillose circular gland. Column 3- 4 mm long. Fig. 33, i; 36, d.

Ecology. Wet closed forests, often with bamboo, on any soils. 400- 1400 m . Fl. March - May. Not rare (VU).

Distribution: Vietnam ( Bac Kan , Ha Giang, Ha Tinh, Hoa Binh , Lao Cai, Thua Thien Hue , Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai ). NE India, Myanmar , Thailand , S. China, Taiwan , Malaya, Sumatra , Java.

Studied specimens. Ba Be, Bac Kan, Eberhardt s.n. ; Ha Giang, Bat Dai Son mt., DKH 5073 (HN, LE, MO); Ha Tinh, Huong Son, HAL 5215 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh , Da Bac, HAL 557 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2266 (HN, LE); Thua Thien Hue, Bach Ma national park, HLF 904 (HN, LE); Vinh Phu, Tam Dao, a.1987, Averyanov, LX-VN s.n. (LE); Yen Bai, Regnier s.n.

 

Goodyera R.Br.,

1813, Hort. Kew. 2 ed.5: 197.

Type: G. repens (L.) R.Br. ( Satyrium repens L.).

Terrestrial, lithophytic and occasionally epiphytic sympodial creeping herbs with few rosette leaves and ascending floriferous leafless stem. Leaves petiolate, sheathing at base, acute. Scape erect, with few sterile bracts and 1 to many resupinate flowers in more or less dense, often secund spike. Sepals all parallel to the floral axis, or 2 lateral sepals spreading. Petals oblique, usually connivent and forming hood with median sepal, sometimes joined near their apex. Lip divided into hypochile and epichile. Hypochile saccate, with bristly hairs or lamellar protuberance inside. Epichile simple, entire, oblong-ligulate, usually reflexed. Column short, without appendages at base. Rostellum long, deeply cleft into long arms. Pollinia 2, sectile, with caudicle and elongate viscidium. Stigma entire, hemispheric, on the front of the column.

80-100(9) species. Europe, Mainland Asia, Indonesia , N. Australia, islands of W. Pacific, N. Australia, North and Central America .

 

Key to species

 

1. Rhizome very short, floriferous stem erect; leaves more or less erect, broadly-lanceolate to narrowly ovate; scape, rachis and flowers glabrous; inflorescence dense many flowered spike; sepals 2- 3 mm long . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. G . procera

-. Rhizome more or less long, creeping, floriferous stem ascending; leaves spreading, narrowly-ovate to broadly-ovate; scape, rachis and flowers mere or less hairy; inflorescence lax or sub-dense, few- to many-flowered spike; sepals longer than 3 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

 

2. Large plants, with inflorescence 0.5-1 m tall; spike with more than 30 flowers; leaves 10- 20 cm long, creeping stem 5- 10 mm thick . . . . . .. . . . . 2. G . fumata

-. Plants smaller, with inflorescence less than 0.5 m tall; spike with less than 30 flowers; leaves less than 10 cm long; creeping stem less than 5 mm thick . . . . . . . . . 3

 

3. Leaves distinctly reticulated with white, yellow or pink veins . . . . 4

-. Leaves uniform green, sometime with 1 median white stripe or mottled with white irregular spots . . . . . 5

 

4. Inflorescence many-flowered spike 3- 7 cm long on scape longer than 5 cm ; sepals 3- 3.5 mm long, densely tomentose . . . . . . . 3. G . hispida

-. Inflorescence subsessile with 1-3 flowers on scape less than 1 cm long; sepals 18- 22 mm long, glabrous or sparsely hairy . . . . . . . 4. G . biflora

 

5. Inflorescence with 1-3 flowers 2-2.5 cm across, sepals glabrous, spreading, 12- 14 mm long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. G . viridiflora

-. Inflorescence normally with 4-25 flowers, flowers less than 1 cm across, sepals pubescent or sparsely hairy, not spreading, less than 13 mm long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

 

6. Floral bracts exceeding half of flowers, longer than 1.5 cm ; sepals usually longer than 10 mm ; leaves 2.5-10 cm long . . . . . . . . 6. G . foliosa

-. Floral bracts not exceeding half of flowers, shorter than 1.5 cm ; sepals usually less than 10 mm long; leaves 1.5-4 cm long . . . . . . . . 7

 

7. Sepals 8- 9 mm long, pubescent; leaves mottled with white irregular spots, rare pure green . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. G . schlechtendaliana

-. Sepals less than 8 mm long, glabrous or sparsely hairy; leaves uniform dark green to dark olive-green, sometimes with white median stripe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

 

8. Leaves dark uniform green; inflorescence dense secund spike with 10-25 flowers; hypochile glabrous, with 2 lamellate parallel protuberance near the base . . . . . 8. G . arisanensis

-. Leaves dark green to dark olive-green, with white median stripe; inflorescence lax spike, with few spirally arranged flowers; hypochile pilose with numerous bristly hairs . . . . . 9. G . rhombodoides

1. G . procera (Ker-Gawl.) Hook.,

1823, Exot. Fl. 1, 3, tab. 39; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 38 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 36; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 37.- Neottia procera Ker-Gawl., 1822, Bot. Reg. 8, tab. 639.

Described from Nepal (" Nepal "). Type - icon (" Wallich 619 ") - K.

Erect terrestrial and lithophytic herb up to 60 cm tall, with 4-8 petiolate erect leaves in basal third. Leaves broadly-lanceolate to narrowly-ovate, 5- 15 cm long, 14 cm wide, pure light green. Scape glabrous, with 2-4 sterile narrow, acuminate bracts and dense, many-flowered spike 5- 20 cm long; scape finely papillose. Floral bracts glabrous, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 5- 8 mm long, ciliate along margin. Ovary glabrous, 3-5 mm long. Flowers hardly opening, sub-globose, 3- 4 mm across. Sepals similar, concave, ovate, 2- 3 mm long, glabrous, light greenish, brownish or olive-green. Petals white, as long as sepals, oblique-spathulate. Lip white, sub-globose, saccate, 1.5- 2 mm long, with few slender glands within; apex triangular, blunt recurved, with 2 fleshy tubercles at the base. Column 1- 1.5 mm high, with acute rostellar arms, and ovate, acute anther. Fruit ovoid capsule, 4-5 mm long. Fig. 33, j, k; 36, e.

Ecology. Wet open mossy places among secondary grasslands and open shrubs, commonly along rocky stream valleys and on spring seepages, on any kinds of soils. 100- 1600 m . Fl. February - May. Common (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces ). Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, India, Japan, China, Taiwan, Hainan, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Java, Sumatra, Philippines.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ngan Son, CBL 1259 (HN, LE); Binh Tri Thien, Bo-giang, Dak Lac, Krong Bong, VH 6461 (HN, LE); Gia Lai Kontum, Dakgley, Bien 565 (HN, LE), Phoong 426 (HN, LE); Gia Lai Kontum, Kbang, LX-VN 2085 (HN, LE); Gia Lai Kontum, Kon Ha Nung, LX-VN 1991 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Bac Me, HAL 6608 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quang Ba, DKH 4834 (HN, LE), Bien 14248 (LE); Hoang Lien Son, Sapa, 19.5.61, sine coll., 2312, 2318 (LE); Kon Tum, Chu Mom Ray , DKH 4553 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Ngoc Linh mt, VH 297 (HN, LE), VH 1190 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Muong Te, HAL 10120 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Phong Tho, HAL 10713 (HN, LE); Ninh Thuan, Nui Chua mt., HLF 4179 (HN, LE); Quang Tri, Da Krong, HLF 5756 (HN, LE), HLF 6163 (HN, LE); Quang Tri, Huong Hoa, HLF 5901 (HN, LE), d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0080/HLF5901 ; Thua Thien Hue, A Luoi, HAL 7266 (HN, LE), HAL 7502 (HN, LE); Thua Thien - Hue, Bach Ma national park, HLF 1732 (HN, LE); Thua Thien Hue, Huong Thuy, HAL 8221 (HN, LE); Thua Thien Hue, Nam Dong, HAL 6924 (HN, LE), HAL 10867 (HN, LE); Thuan Hai, Ka-rom.

 

2. G . fumata Thwaites,

1861, Enum. Pl. Zeylan.: 314; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 28 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 36; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 37. - Allochilus eberhardtii Gagnep., 1932, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., 2 ser., 4: 591.

Described from Sri Lanka (" Ceylon ... Central Province "). Type (" Thwaites CP 3668 ") - K (holotype), PDA (isotype).

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb herb with ascending fleshy leafy stem 6- 10 mm thick and terminal inflorescence 50- 100 cm tall. Leaves 3-7; petiole 2- 6 cm long; leaf blade oblique-elliptic, acute, 10- 20 cm long, 4- 8 cm wide, pure green. Scape leafless, pubescent, with few narrow, acuminate sterile bracts, bearing dense, many-flowered spike 15- 45 cm long. Floral bracts cuneate, 0.5-1 cm long. Flowers widely opening, light brownish to olive-greenish, lip white. Ovary densely glandular pubescent, 1- 1.2 cm long. Sepals sub-similar, narrowly ovate, obtuse, pubescent, 6- 8 mm long; lateral sepals reflexed. Petals oblique lanceolate-spathulate, dilated to the apex, as long as sepals. Lip concave, cup-shaped, 5- 6 mm long, 4-5 mm wide, hairy inside, with attenuate narrowly-oblong, obtuse, much reflexed apex. Column stalked dilated above with emarginate rostellum, 4-5 mm long. Fruits obovoid capsule, 1- 1.2 cm long, 4-5 mm wide. Fig. 33, l ; 36, f .

Ecology. Wet closed forests on any kind of soils, commonly along humid rocky stream canyons. 400- 2000 m . Fl. January-April. Occasional (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan , Dak Nong, Kon Tum, Lam Dong, Ninh Binh). Sri Lanka , India , Myanmar , China , Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan , Thailand , Malaysia , Philippines , Java.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be, HLF 555 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4696 (HN, LE); Bac Thai, Chu-bo; Siam-Khong, Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5610 (HN, LE); Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong, 1989, Bao 631 (HN, LE), 20.03.1971, Trong 155 (HN, LE), N.M.Cuong, H.L.Quyen, NMC 289 (HN), D.D.Soejarto et al., DDS 11264 (HN); sine date, MAJ 514 (HN); Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong, May bac, LX-VN 1811 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 2344 (HN, LE); Kontum, Ngoc Linh mt., VH 833 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, VH 3329 (HN, LE).

Note. Widespread and common species growing in shady wet woods at different elevations, commonly along stream and wet valleys. Rarely observed in flowers. Typical herbaceous element of humid forest understory.

 

3. G . hispida Lindl.,

1857, Journ. Linn. Soc. London (Bot.), 1: 183; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 29 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 36; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 37.

Described from NE. India ("... Khasia Hills"). Type (" Hooker & Thomson 2110 ") - K.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb 6- 20 cm tall. Leaves 2-5, petiolate; petiole 0.6-3 cm long; leaf blade ovate to lanceolate, acuminate, 4- 14 cm long, 1.2- 2.7 cm wide, velvety dark brown-green, reticulated with silvery, yellow or pinkish veins, often with light broad median stripe. Scape pubescent, with 2-4 sterile narrow, acuminate bracts and dense, many-flowered spike. Rachis hairy, 3- 7 cm long. Floral bracts glabrous to sparsely hairy, lanceolate, acuminate, 7- 11 mm long. Ovary densely hairy, 4- 6 mm long. Flowers hardly opening. Sepals ovate, concave, 3- 4 mm long, 1- 1.5 mm wide, hairy, olive-green, with white tips. Petals white, of the same length, oblique-oblong, to lanceolate, with wavy obtuse apex. Lip white, concave, cup-shaped, 2- 3 mm long, 2 mm wide, coarsely pubescent within, with attenuate recurved apex. Column 1 mm high, with linear rostellar arms. Fruit broadly elliptic to almost round capsule, 5- 8 mm long. Fig. 33, m-o; 36, g .

Ecology. Closed forests on any kind of soils. 150- 1500 m . Fl. June - August. Not rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces ). India , Thailand , Peninsular Malaysia .

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4700 (HN, LE), HLF 760 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Na Ri, HAL 4934 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Bao Lac, CBL 310 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Nguyen Binh, CBL 1304b (HN, LE); Dak Lac, Chu Yang Sinh mt., VH 6102 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Bac Me, HAL 6574 (HN, LE), HAL 6421 (HN); Ha Giang, Quang Ba, DKH 4788 (HN, LE), DKH 4823 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Vi Xuyen, DKH 6346 (HN, LE, MO); Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong, Luan Van Bao 707 (HN, LE), LX-VN 1808 (HN, LE), 23 July 1965, Bich et al., 948 , CPNP 5149 (HN), 25 March 1971, Hien B-50 , CPNP 5123 (HN), 17 July 1971, Hop, Khoi 565 , CPNP 5122 (HN), 12 July 2002, NMC 1680 (HN), sine date, Aung 784 (HN), sine date, Bich, Nhu, Liem 948 (HN), sine date, Dung 784, CPNP 5124 (HN), sine date, Hien B-51 (HN), sine date, N.T.Hiep, NTH 3892 (HN), sine date, Hop, Khoi 565 (HN); Hai Phong, Cat Ba, LX-VN 3446 (HN, LE); Khanh Hoa, Hon Giao, a.1997, VH s.n. (LE, photo); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong, HAL 1659 (LE, photo); Ninh Thuan, Nui Chua national park, HLF 4286 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Phong Nha-Ke Bang national park, HAL 6189 (HN, LE photo); Son La, Moc Chau, HAL 9385 (HN); Son La, Yen Chau, HAL 9463 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 337 (HN, LE), HAL 977 (HN), HAL 3010 (HN, LE), HAL 3182 (HN), HAL 3312 (HN, LE), HAL 3371 (HN), Thanh Hoa, Co Lung, a.2003, HAL 3312 (LE, photo); Thua Thien - Hue, Bach Ma national park, HLF 1624 (HN, LE), Lai Chau, Sin Ho, HAL 9881 (HN, LE).

Note. Typical shade-loving element of forest understory. It is easily distinguished by its deep velvety brown-green leaves reticulated with silvery, yellow or pink veins. The species is widely collected for traditional oriental medicine and as ornamental plant known under common name jewel orchids. Needs special attention for protection.

 

4. G . biflora (Lindl.) Hook.f.,

1890, Fl. Brit. India 6: 114. - Georchis biflora Lindl., 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. : 496.

Described from Nepal ? Type ( Wall. Cat. 7379 ) K.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb 5- 8 cm tall. Leaves 4-6, shortly petiolate; leaf blade ovate to broadly-ovate, acute, 3.5- 5 cm long, velvety dark green, reticulated with silvery veins. Inflorescence sub-sessile with hairy scape less than 1 cm long and 1-3 terminal secund flowers. Floral bracts glabrous to sparsely hairy, ovate to obovate, shortly acute, 0.9- 1.4 cm long. Ovary sessile, hairy, 8- 12 mm long. Flowers odorless, not widely opening. Sepals oblanceolate, concave, 1.8- 2.2 cm long, sparsely hairy, white to light pink. Petals white, of the same length, oblique-rhomboid, with finely plicate margin. Lip white, oblong-ligulate, 1.8-2 cm long, with concave, coarsely hairy base and recurved acute apex plicate along margin. Column erect 2.5- 3.5 mm tall; linear rostellar arms and narrowly cuneate anther close each other, to 1 cm long. Fig. 33, p-r; 36, h.

Ecology. Primary evergreen broad-leaved wet forests on silicate rocks. 1500- 1800 m . Fl. April - May. Very rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lao Cai ). Nepal, NE. India, Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan.

Studied specimens. Lao Cai, Sa Pa, HAL 11135 (LE).

Fig. 33. Cheirostylis bipunctata: a flowering plant and leaf, b flower, c flattened tepals
and lip; C. latipetala: d flowering plant, e flattened tepals, flattened lip and column, side
view, f ovary; C. spathulata: g flowers and base of spur; Erythrodes hirsuta: h lip, frontal
view; E. blumei: i flattened tepals, column and lip; Goodyera procera: j flower and lip, k
column, side view; G. fumata: l flattened tepals, flattened lip and column, half-side view;
G. hispida: m flowering plant, n flower without lip and petals, o lip; G. biflora: p
flattened tepals and lip, q column, side view, r floral bract; G. viridiflora: s flattened flower
without petals and lip, flattened lip and flattened petals.

 

5. G . viridiflora (Blume) Blume,

1858, Coll. Orchid.: 41; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 37. - Neottia viridiflora Blume, 1825, Bijdr.: 408.

Described from Java (Java, Salak). Type ( Blume s.n. ) P.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb 12- 20 cm tall with 3-4 shortly petiolate rosette leaves. Leaf blade dull green, ovate, with cordate base, 2- 9 cm long. Scape 4- 15 cm long, pubescent, with 3-4 large, lanceolate, acuminate, sterile bracts, 2-3 cm long and 1-3 pale green to light pink-brown flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, glabrous, ciliate along margin, 1.5-2 cm long. Ovary glabrous, 8- 10 mm long. Sepals glabrous, narrowly-ovate, 12- 14 mm long; lateral sepals spreading. Petals oblique-rhombic, dilated at the middle, same length as sepals, connivent to median sepal forming hood. Lip ovate, as long as sepals, with concave hairy base and attenuate, acute apex turned down. Column 2- 3 mm long, widened at the stigma, bearing a very long rostellum to 10 mm long, with long beaked anther behind it. Fruit ovoid capsule to 1.2- 1.4 cm long. Fig. 33, s; 36, i.

Ecology. Broad-leaved and coniferous mossy forests, mainly on rocky limestone. 500- 2000 m . Fl. March - April. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan , Cao Bang , Ha Giang, Lao Cai, Quang Binh, Son La). India , Nepal , Bhutan , China , Ryukyu Islands, Thailand , Malaysia , Philippines , Indonesia to New Guinea and Samoa .

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4865 (HN, LE), HLF 768 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Yen Lac, 25 Dec. 1998, Averyanov et al., s.n. (LE); Ha Giang, Quang Ba, DKH 5278 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2509 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6061 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 6014 (HN, LE); Son La, Moc Chau, DKH 7400 (HN, LE).

 

6. G . foliosa (Lindl.) Benth. ex Clarke,

1889, Journ. Linn. Soc. London (Bot.) 25: 73; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 29 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 35; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 37. - Georchis foliosa Lindl., 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. : 406.

Described from Myanmar ("in regno Burmano"). Type (" Griffith s.n. ") - K.

Creeping terrestrial herb 15- 35 cm tall. Leaves 4-6, petiolate, oblique-elliptic, acute, 4-10 cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide, pure green, often finely undulate along margin. Petiole 1-4 cm long. Scape leafless, with dense, many-flowered slightly secund spike. Rachis sparsely hairy, 1.5-10 cm long. Floral bracts ovate to lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous, 1.5-2 cm long, as long as half of flowers or longer. Ovary densely hairy, 5- 12 mm long. Flowers odorless, not widely opening. Sepals sub-similar, olive-brown to pinkish, ovate, concave, obtuse, 9- 13 mm long, pubescent. Petals white, oblique rhomboid-spathulate, 8- 12 mm long, 2- 3 mm wide, forming hood with dorsal sepal. Lip white to light greenish or pinkish, ovate, 7- 10 mm long, 4-5 mm wide, with concave, cup-shaped, long-papillose base and attenuate, obtuse white recurved obtuse apex. Column 3- 3.5 mm tall, with straight, finger-like rostellum arms and narrowly ovate attenuate anther 4- 4.5 mm long. Fruit ellipsoid capsule, 10- 14 mm long, 4-5 mm wide. Fig. 34, a ; 37, a .

Ecology. Wet closed forests on any kinds of soil. 400- 2000 m . Fl. September - November. Not rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan, Cao Bang , Dak Nong, Ha Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lao Cai, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien - Hue, Vinh Phu). Bhutan , Nepal , NE. India, Myanmar , Japan , Korea , China , Taiwan , Thailanad.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be national park, HLF 614 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4870 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Pho Bang, Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5611 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Bac Me, HAL 6586 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Meo Vac, NTH 3402 (HN, LE); Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong, Bao 631 (LE); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 1674 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 2334 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 2406 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Sin Ho, HAL 10027 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, 14 km to NNW from Dalat city, VH 2522 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, VH 2634 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, VH 3126 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2828 (HN, LE); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong, 8 Dec. 2001, N.T.Hiep, s.n. (HN, LE); Ninh Thuan, Ninh Son, VH 3627 (HN, LE); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 3967 (HN, LE); Thua Thien - Hue, Xuan Loc, HLF 1826 (HN, LE); Vinh Phu, Tam Dao, Hiep, 14900 (LE); Vinh Phu, Tam Dao, LX-VN 2356 (HN, LE).

Note. Widespread and common species growing in shady wet woods at different elevations, but rarely flowers. Typical herbaceous element of forest understory.

 

7. G . schlechtendaliana Reichenb.f.,

1849, Linnaea 22: 861; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 29 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 35; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 37.

Described from Japan ( Japan ). Type ( Goring s.n .) W.

Terrestrial, lithophytic and occasionally epiphytic herb with 2-6 rosette leaves and ascending floriferous stem 10- 25 cm tall. Leaves petiolate, ovate, acute, 2- 6 cm long, light green, with white mottling or irregular spots. Scape and rachis densely pubescent. Spike 5- 12 cm long, secund, with 5-15 lax to sub-dense flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, acuminate, 6- 11 mm long, longer than ovary, hairy. Ovary ellipsoid, 5- 11 mm long, white glandular pubescent. Flowers white, sometimes with greenish or pink tint, apices of sepals and lip sometimes with dark green spot. Sepals sub-similar, ovate, acute, 8- 9 mm long, with 1 prominent vein, densely white glandular pubescent; lateral sepals oblique, with reflexed apex. Petals oblique-rhomboid, same length as sepals, finely wavy along margin toward the apex. Lip 6- 9 mm long, with saccate, concave, pilose base and oblong-ligulate, attenuate, down curved blunt apex. Column straight, 2.5- 3 mm tall with subulate rostellar arms 4- 5.5 mm long and ovate anther. Fruit ellipsoid capsule, 8- 12 mm long. Fig. 34, b; 37, b, c.

Ecology. Wet mossy cloudy forests and bamboo-ericaceous thickets on mountain tops on any kinds of soils. 1300- 3000 m . Fl. September - December. Common (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all montane regions with elevations higher than 1300 m ). NE. India, Nepal , Bhutan , China , Taiwan , Korea , Japan , Thailand , Sumatra .

Studied specimens. Cao Bang , Bao Lac, CBL 311 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Nguyen Binh, CBL 1580 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Dong Van, CBL 1799 (HN, LE), NTH 3370 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, HAL 8391 (HN); Ha Giang, Yen Minh, HAL 8404 (HN, LE), Yen Minh, NTH 3495 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh , Mai Chau , DKH 7923 (HN, LE, MO); Kontum, Ngoc Linh mt., VH 581 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Tam Duong, HAL 10186 (HN), HAL 10341 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, 14 km to NNW from Dalat, VH 2576 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Bi Doup Nui Ba national park, HLF 5257 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Bi Doup mt., HLF 5257 (HN, LE), d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0038/HLF5257 ; Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Bi Dup mt., VH 3304 (HN, LE), VH 4454 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, VH 2868 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, peak of Bi Dup mt., VH 2999 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Fan Si Pang mt., NTH 2317a (HN, LE).

 

8. G . arisanensis Hayata,

1916, Icon. Pl. Formos., 6: 91.

Described from Taiwan (Mt. Arisan, ad 2500 m alt.). Type ( U.Faurie, Dec. 1914) TI?

Terrestrial herb with 2-4 rosette leaves and ascending floriferous stem 5- 12 cm tall. Leaves petiolate, narrowly-ovate, dark green, acute, 2- 3.5 cm long. Scape and rachis pubescent. Spike dense flowered, secund, with 10-25 flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, acuminate, 4- 10 mm long, longer than flowers, glabrous, ciliate along margin. Ovary ellipsoid, to 6 mm long, sparsely hairy or glabrous. Sepals narrowly-ovate, obtuse, 4-5 mm long, with 1 prominent vein, lateral sepals oblique. Petals oblanceolate, falcate-oblique, same length as sepals. Lip 4-5 mm long, saccate at the base and oblong-ligulate, blunt apex. Hypochile concave, protruding outside lateral sepals, glabrous, but with 2 lamellate parallel protuberance near base. Column 1.5- 2 mm tall, anther ovate, rostellum with 2 slender arms. Fruit ellipsoid capsule, 6- 8 mm long, 3- 4.5 mm wide. Fig. 34, c, d.

Ecology. Primary broad-leaved cloudy forests and ericaceous thickets on tops of mountains composed with silicate rocks. 2300- 2500 m . Fl. October - December. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lai Chau ). Taiwan .

Studied specimens. Lai Chau, Tam Duong, HAL 10468 (HN, LE).

 

9. G . rhombodoides Aver.,

2008, Taiwania, 52, 4: 297, fig. 8.

Described from northern Vietnam (Lai Chau Prov., Tam Duong Distr. ...). Type (3 Dec. 2006, Nguyen Tien Hiep, L.Averyanov, Pham Van The, HAL 10338 ) HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Terrestrial herb 12- 15 cm tall, with 3-5 petiolate leaves at the base. Leaves oblique, ovate, acute, 1.5-2.5 cm long, 0.8- 1.4 cm wide, velvety dark green to olive-green, with white median stripe. Scape 3- 5 cm long, short densely hairy, with 2-3 cuneate, acuminate, sub-glabrous, sterile bracts 5- 8 mm long and lax spike with 3-6 flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, acuminate, sub-glabrous or sparsely hairy, 6- 10 mm long. Ovary cylindric, 4.5- 6 mm long, 0.8- 1 mm wide, short densely hairy. Flowers not widely opening. Sepals sub-similar, narrowly-ovate, sub-glabrous, 6- 7 mm long, 2- 2.5 mm wide, lateral sepals cucullate, reflexed at a right angle. Petals oblique, lanceolate-rhomboid, as long as sepals, 1- 1.4 mm wide, connivent with the dorsal sepal forming forward directed hood. Lip 5.5- 6.5 mm long, 2.5 mm wide; base hemispheric, cup-like, densely hairy with long hairs; apex entire, oblong-ligulate, slightly concave, obtuse to blunt. Column 2.5- 3 mm tall, with 2 short rostellar wings. Anther narrowly-ovate, acuminate, 1.6- 1.8 mm long. Fig, 34, e-h.

Ecology. Primary broad-leaved evergreen forests on granite and shale. 1900- 2400 m . Fl. September November. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Lai Chau).

Note. Very rare species known by the only type collection. On floral structure it resembles Goodyera foliosa , but distinctly differs in twice smaller flowers, small size of plant and in small, dark velvety green leaves with distinct white longitudinal median stripe.

 

Herpysma Lindl.,

1833, Bot. Reg. 19, tab. 1618.

Type: H. longicaulis Lindl.

Terrestrial sympodial herbs 20- 35 cm tall, with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal short, dense spike. Leaves narrowly-ovate, 5- 9 cm long, acute, distant, spirally arranged, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, acuminate. Scape short, pubescent. Rachis 2-3 cm long with several dense flowers. Floral bracts narrowly-ovate, obtuse, exceeding the ovary, pubescent. Ovary 8- 10 mm long. Flowers sessile, resupinate, white with pink tint or pink median veins on tepals and lip. Sepals sub-similar, free, narrowly-ovate, acute, concave, pubescent, 7- 11 mm long. Petals rhomboid, acute, as long as median sepal, joined in upper half and connivent to median sepal forming hood. Lip spurred; blade rectangular, 6- 9 mm long, deflexed from the middle, with rounded side lobes and rectangular median lobe with median dent; disk with 2 short triangular keels between side lobes and 1 longitudinal keel on mid lobe. Spur slender, cylindrical, 8- 9 mm long, bifid at apex, inside with several small scattered warts. Column adnate to basal lip margins, 5- 6.5 mm tall, wingless, with bifid, rather short rostellum and large entire stigma at front. Anther ovate. Pollinia 2, sectile, with caudicle and viscidium. Fig. 34, i-l.

Monotype genus.

 

1. H. longicaulis Lindl.,

1833, Bot. Reg. 19, tab. 1618; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 28; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 33; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 40.

Described from Nepal ("Napalia"). Type (" Wallich, 7389 ") K, C.

Ecology. Broad-leaved forests on silicate soils. 1500- 2000 m . Fl. September - November. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong). Nepal , Bhutan , NE. India, Myanmar , S. China, Thailand , Sumatra .

Studied specimens. Annam , sine loc, Vernet, 12 (P); Dankia, Langbian, Poilane, 18666 (P).

Note. Very rare species not observed in Vietnam during last decades.

 

Hetaeria Blume,

1828, Fl. Jav. Orch. 1 Pref.: 7, nom. emend. id.; 1858, Coll. Orch. Arch. Ind. Jap.: 102, tab. 32; Seidenf. 1978, Dansk Bot.Ark. 32, 2 : 94-104. - Etaeria Blume, 1825, Bijdr. 6, fig. 14; id., 1825, ibid. 8: 409, orth. var. rej.

Lectotype: H. oblongifolia (Blume) Blume ( Etaeria oblongifolia Blume).

Terrestrial and lithophytic sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal many flowered raceme. Leaves few, spirally arranged, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, uniformly green, acute. Scape leafless, with 2-4 sterile bracts. Flowers small, not or hardly resupinate. Sepals free; petals free or connivent to median sepal forming hood. Lip spurless. Hypochile concave with various papillae on lateral sides. Epichile straight, acute or reflexed in form of small circular plate. Column short, erect, with prominent rostellar arms and two wing-like appendages at front. Anther narrowly triangular-ovate, acute. Pollinia 2, sectile, with stipe and viscidium. Stigma with 2, convex, separated lobes.

30(5) species. Tropical Africa and Asia, Australia , Pacific islands to Tahiti .

 

Key to species

 

1. Epichile of the lip minute, less than 5 mm wide, heart-shaped, triangular acute or obtuse . . . . . 2

-. Epichile of the lip large, 6- 8 mm wide, with large orbicular upwards-backwards turned white lobules . . . 1. H. anomala

 

2. Wings of column incurved or folded, not straight, not reaching apex of rostellar arms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

-. Wings of column narrow, straight, widening into apical spathulate prolongation as long as rostellar arms, or longer . . . . . . . . 2. H. alta

 

3. Hypochile with 5-6 slender papillae placed on each side of the sac . . . . . . . . . . 3. H. oblongifolia

-. Hypochile with 1-3 fat irregularly branching or flattened irregularly dented glands on each side of the sac . . . . . . 4

 

4. Sepals 4-5 mm long; petals narrowly-obovate, hammer-shaped, very oblique, widening from narrow base into semicircular widening on upper edge faced to dorsal sepal . . . . . . . . . . 4. H. affinis

-. Sepals 5- 6 mm long; petals ovate to broadly-ovate, without semicircular widening, not oblique or slightly oblique . . . . . 5. H. nitida

 

1. H. anomala (Lindl.) Reichenb.f.,

1874, Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 30: 142; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 40. - Aetheria anomala Lindl., 1857, J. Linn. Soc. 1: 394. - Hetaeria grandiflora Ridl., 1923, J. Mal. Br. Roy. As. Soc. 1, 1: 98. - H. rotundiloba J.J.Sm., 1926, Svensk Bot. Tidsskr. 20: 470. - H. hainanensis Tang & Wang, 1974, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1, 1: 34. - H. biloba (Ridl.) Seidenf. et Wood, 1992, Orch. Pen. Mal. Sing.: 95, fig. 38; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, l .c.: 40. - Zeuxine biloba Ridl., 1909, J. Fed. Mal. St. Mus. 4: 73.

Described from NE. India (" Assam : Tangree"). Type (" Griffith sine n. ") - K (holotype).

Terrestrial or lithophytic herb up to 35 cm tall, with 3-5 narrowly-ovate leaves 5- 8 cm long. Scape to 20 cm long, shortly hairy. Rachis white hairy, to 7 cm long, with 4-20 flowers. Bracts ovate, 5- 7 mm long, shorter than ovary, acuminate. Sepals oblong, 5- 6 mm long, olive-brown with white and red apex, lateral sepals spreading. Petals lanceolate, 5 mm long, white with reddish-brown base, connivent to median sepal. Lip white with saccate greenish-pink base containing 2 short gland-like keels on each side, mesochile short, channeled with inrolled edges, epichile with 2 recurved broadly obovate lobes, each lobes 3- 4.5 mm long, 2.5 mm wide. Column with short narrow wings and prominent rostellum arms. Fig. 34, m , n; 37, d.

Ecology. Wet primary and secondary closed forests, often with bamboo, on any soils. 800- 1300 m . Fl. January - April, August. Not rare (VU).

Distribution: Vietnam (Dac Lac, Hoa Binh , Lao Cai, Quang Binh, So La). NE India, Burma , Laos , S. China, Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi .

Studied specimens. Dac Lac, Chu Yang Sinh mt., a. 1996, Vu Ngoc Long s.n. (LE); Hoa Binh , Da Bac, Phu Canh mt., HAL 396 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2287, DKH 6987 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6060 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Phong Nha - Ke Bang national park, HAL 6241 (HN, LE); So La, Yen Chau, DKH 7225 (HN, LE, MO).

  2. H. alta Ridl.

1896, Journ. Linn. Soc., Bot. 32:404.

Described from Malacca Peninsular ("Perak: Hermitage Hills, Kuala Kangsa Valley "). Type (" Ridley s.n. ") - ?

Terrestrial herb up to 50 cm tall, at the base with 4-6 ovate to elliptic leaves 6- 9 cm long distant on 2-3 cm; sheaths to 2 cm long. Scape to 20 cm long, shortly hairy, with many hardly opening flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, hairy, 5- 7 mm long, shorter than ovary. Sepals yellow-pink, ovate, 5- 6 mm long, hairy. Petals white, ovate of the same length, connivent to median sepal. Lip 4-5 mm long, at the base, with 2 close irregularly lobed papillae on each side, epichile in form of small slightly reflexed cordate tip less than 0.5 mm long. Column with tall spathulate wings equal or slightly exceeding rostellum arms. Fig. 34, o-q; 37, e.

Distribution: Vietnam (Thua Thien Hue ). Peninsular Thailand , Kalimantan .

Ecology. Wet closed primary and secondary forests on silicate soils. 300- 400 m . Fl. March - April. Very rare (DD).

Studied specimens. Thua Thien Hue Prov. , Nam Dong HAL 7156 (HN, LE).

 

3. H. oblongifolia (Blume) Blume,

1858, Coll. Orch. Arch. Ind. Jap.: 102, tab. 32; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 39; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 32; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 40. - Etaeria oblongifolia Blume, 1825, Bijdr. 6, fig. 14; id. 1825, ibid. 8: 410.

Described from Java ("Solassie Provinciae Tjanjor"). Type L (BO, P)?

Terrestrial herb up to 40 cm tall, at the base with 4-7 shining narrowly-ovate leaves 4- 6 cm long. Scape shortly hairy, to 16 cm long with many hardly opening flowers Floral bracts narrowly-cuneate, 3-5 mm long, shorter than ovary. Sepals light yellowish, ovate, 3- 3.5 mm long, hairy. Petals white, oblique narrowly-obovate, 3- 3.5 mm long, connivent to median sepal. Lip 3- 3.5 mm long, yellowish, with about 5-6 slender papillae on each side, epichile brightly yellow, triangular, fat, finely papillose, apiculate. Column at front with strongly sigmoid, triangular-acute wings, shorter than rostellar arms. Fig. 35, a-c; 37, f .

Distribution: Vietnam ( Vungtau Condao). Andaman islands, Thailand , Malacca, Bonin, Ryukyu islands, Philippines , Indonesia , New Guinea , Australia , Pacific islands.

Ecology. Wet primary and secondary closed forests on silicate soils. 200- 400 m . Fl. March - May. Locally common (VU).

Studied specimens. Vungtau Condao, Con Dao, a. 1987, Averyanov 817, 840, 905 (HN, LE); a. 1989, Averyanov 502 (HN, LE).

Fig. 34. Goodyera foliosa: a flower, lip section and petals; G. schlechtendaliana: b flower,
lip section and petals; G. arisanensis: c flowering plant, d flattened tepals and lip section,
side view; G. rhombodoides: e flowering plant and leaf, f flattened tepals, g flattened lip
and lip section, side view, h column, dorsal and frontal views; Herpysma longicaulis: i
flowering plant, j flattened sepals and flattened petals, k lip, side view, l column, frontal
and half-side views; Hetaeria anomala: m flower, n flattened tepals, column and lip;
H. alta: o flattened tepals and column, p lip, frontal view, q column, side view.

 

4. H. affinis (Griff.) Seidenf. et Ormerod,

2001, Oasis, Suppl. 2: 9. - Goodyera affinis Griff., 1851, Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 391; id., 1851, Ic. Pl. Asiat. 3, tab. 351B, fig. 7. - Cerochilus rubens Lindl., 1854, Gard. Chron. ser. 1: 87. - Hetaeria rubens (Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook.f., 1890, Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 115; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 39; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 33; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 40.

Described from NE India (" Assam , n. Negrogam"). Type ("18-01-1836, Griffith in Assam Herb. no. 315 ") lost (Seidenf. & Ormerod, 2001, l .c.).

Terrestrial herb up to up to 45 cm tall, with 4-8 narrowly-ovate to ovate leaves 5-10 cm long. Scape hairy, to 25 cm long, with many hardly opening flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, sparsely hairy, 4- 7 mm long, shorter than ovary. Pedicel and ovary straight, densely adpressed to the rachis. Sepals greenish-pink, ovate, 4-5 mm long, sparsely hairy. Petals white, oblique narrowly-obovate, hammer-like, with a semicircular widening at upper edge faced to the dorsal sepal, 4-5 mm long, connivent to median sepal. Lip 4-5 mm long, yellow, with 1-2 simple or irregular lobed fat papillae on each side; epichile in form of very small slightly reflexed conduplicate, cordate white tip. Column 1.5 mm tall, at front with small triangular inward turned wings near the apex, shorter than small triangular acute rostellar arms. Fig. 35, d, e; 37, g .

Distribution: Vietnam (Dak Nong, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien Hue , Tuyen Quang). Bhutan , NE India, Burma , China , Thailand , Vietnam .

Studied specimens. Dak Nong, Dak Glong, Ta Dung mt., HLF 5608 (HN, LE); Nghe An, Con Cuong, Phu Pha May mt., HLF 3116 (HN, LE); Nghe An, Tuong Duong, HLF 6591 (HN, LE); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong national park, Henk van der Werff ey al., 14209 (HN, LE, MO); Quang Tri, Da Krong Nature Reserve, HLF 6256, HN, LE, d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0064/HLF6256 ; Thua Thien Hue, Nam Dong, HAL 10934 (HN, LE); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 220 (HN, LE).

 

5. H. nitida Ridl.,

1896, J. Linn. Soc. 32: 404; Seidenf., Wood, 1992, Orch. Pen. Mal. Sing.: 95, fig. 37 g-i, pl. 2, d.

Described from Malacca Peninsular ("Pulau Butong, Penang "). Type (" Curtis s.n. ") - SING (holotype).

Terrestrial herb up to up to 45 cm tall, with 5-7 narrowly-ovate to ovate leaves 7-10 cm long. Scape hairy, to 25 cm long, with many hardly opening flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, hairy, 5- 8 mm long, shorter than ovary. Pedicel and ovary straight, densely adpressed to the rachis. Sepals olive to pink, ovate, 5- 6 mm long, hairy. Petals white, oblique ovate, broadly-ovate to broadly-obovate, 5- 6 mm long, connivent to median sepal. Lip 5- 5.5 mm long, yellow, with 2(3) irregular lobed fat papillae on each side; epichile triangular, conduplicate, with fat edges and shortly apiculate tip, brightly yellow. Column 1.5 mm tall, at front with small rectangular inward turned wings near the apex, shorter than small triangular acute rostellar arms. Fig. 35, f , g; 37, e, i.

Distribution: Vietnam (Ha Giang, Quang Tri). Thailand , Malaya , Singapore .

Ecology. Wet closed primary forests on rocky limestone. 150- 1200 m . Fl. March - May. Rare (VU).

Studied specimens. Ha Giang, Quan Ba, Bat Dai Son mt., NTH 5420G (HN, LE); Quang Tri, Da Krong Nature Reserve, HLF 6255, HN, LE, d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0065/HLF6255 .

 

Ludisia A. Rich.,

1825, in Bory de St.-Vincent, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 7: 437.

Type: L. discolor (Ker-Gawl.) A. Rich. ( Goodyera discolor Ker-Gawl.).

Lithophytic and occasionally epiphytic sympodial herb with fleshy succulent creeping rhizome and ascending short leafy stem with 2-6 petiolate leaves and terminal erect leafless inflorescence. Petiole and sheath 1-3 cm long; leaf blade ovate to broad-elliptic, 4-10 cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide, dark velvety green to almost black, with 1-7 yellow or pink longitudinal veins, occasionally reticulated with veins network. Scape 10- 18 cm tall, with 2-3 pale pink, hyaline bracts. Rachis 2- 14 cm long, hairy, with 1-12 laxy flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, 1- 1.5 cm long, a little shorter than ovary. Flowers resupinate, widely open, 1.2- 1.7 cm across, white, with yellow anther. Sepals ovate, 10 mm long. Petals narrowly-ovate of same length, connivent to dorsal sepal forming hood. Lip twisted, with short 2-lobed spur; spur inside with 2-lobed sessile gland on each side; lip blade 7- 9 mm long, clawed, claw channeled, epichile 2-lobed, with spreading oblong lobes. Column twisted, stigma single on front of column. Fruit ellipsoid capsule, 1.5 cm long, 4-5 mm wide. Pollinia 2, sectile, with caudicle and viscidium. Fig. 35, h-k; 43, a-c.

Monotype genus.

 

1. L . discolor (Ker-Gawl.) A. Rich.,

1825, in Bory de St.-Vincent, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 7: 437; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 29; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 41; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 43. - Goodyera discolor Ker-G wl., 1818, Bot. Reg. 4, tab. 271. - Anoectochilus dawsonianus H. Low ex Reichenb.f., 1868, Gard. Chron. (1868): 1038. - Haemaria otletae Rolfe, 1891, Ill. Hort. 38: 31, tab. 524. H. pauciflora Gagnep., 1933, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 80: 349. - Ludisia dawsoniana (H. Low ex Reichenb.f.) Aver., 1988, Bot. Journ. ( Leningrad ), 73, 3: 432. L. otletae (Rolfe) Aver., 1988, Bot. Journ. ( Leningrad ), 73, 3: 432.

Described from S.China ("from the Brasils" - sphalm., sec. Lindl., 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.: 490). Lectotype: Icon " Goodyera discolor " (Bot. Reg. 4, t. 271, Ormerod, 2002, Lindleyana 17, 4: 211).

Ecology. Broad-leaved forests and shrubs on any kind of rocks, usually along rocky river valleys. 50- 1250 m . Fl. February - April. Not rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces). Myanmar , S. China, Thailand , Laos , Cambodia , Malacca Peninsular, Sumatra .

Studied specimens. Dac Lac, 24 Dec. 1979, Bien 1167 (HN, LE); Dak Lac, Chu Yang Sinh mt., VH 5935 (HN), VH 6014 (HN); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, Bat Dai Son mt., NTH 5420D (HN, LE); Ha Tinh, Huong Son, HAL 1340 (HN), VA 12 (HN, MO), VA 429 (HN, MO), VA 858 (HN, NO); Kontum, Sa Thay, Chu Mom Ray , P-7906b (HN); Nghe An, Tuong Duong, HLF 6570 (HN. LE), HLF 6720 (HN); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong national park, 1971, Bao 471, CPNP 5148 (HN), NMC 706 (HN), NTH 4104 (HN), MVX 36 (HN), DDS 11761 (HN), HAL 1605 (HN), HAL 1655 (HN), sine date, Bao 471 (HN), sine date, MVX 172 (HN) . Ninh Thuan, Ninh Hai, HLF 4015 (HN); Ninh Thuan , Ninh Hai , Nui Chua mt ., HLF 4281 ( HN , LE ); Phu Khanh , Nha Trang , 11 June 1989, Averyanov , Kudryavtzeva , 201 ( HN , LE ); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6078 (HN, LE), HAL 6279 (HN), HAL 6350 (HN, LE), HAL 6351 (HN), d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0009/HAL6351 ; Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 5865 (HN, LE), HAL 5926 (HN), HAL 5983 (HN); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, Ke Bang, VH 4771 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Quang Ninh, HAL 6310 (HN); Quang Tri, Da Krong, HLF 6217 (HN); Quang Tri, Huong Hoa, HLF 5933 (HN, LE); Quangnam Danang, Cu Lao Cham, 23 March 1987, Averyanov, Kudryavtzeva, 541 (HN, LE); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 1076 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Thach Thanh, HAL 2891 (HN); Thua Thien Hue, A Luoi, HAL 7994 (HN); Thua Thien - Hue, Bach Ma national park, HLF 1669 (HN, LE), HLF 1818 (HN, LE), HLF 2695 (HN), HLF 2696 (HN); Thua Thien Hue, Huong Thuy, HAL 8111 (HN); Vinh Phu , Tam Dao , 1988, Averyanov et al ., LX - VN s . n . ( LE ), LX - VN 2383 ( HN , LE ); Vungtau Condao, Con Dao, 23 March 1989, Averyanov, Kudryavtzeva, 307 (HN, LE).

Note. Very variable species, particularly on coloration of leaves. Widespread common orchid in lowland areas of Vietnam . It is widely collected for traditional oriental medicine and as ornamental plant for cultivation known under popular name jewel orchids.

 

Macodes Lindl,

1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. : 496.

Type: M. petola (Blume) Lindl. ( Neottia petola Blume).

Terrestrial sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal few- to many-flowered raceme. Leaves few, spirally arranged at the base of stem, shortly petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, acute, bright green with fine network of yellow-golden nerves. Scape leafless, with 2-4 sterile bracts. Flowers small, not resupinate. Sepals free; petals connivent to median sepal forming hood. Lip spurless, twisted, 3-lobed. Hypochile deeply saccate with 2 fat glands on lateral walls. Sidelobes triangular, acute. Epichile spathulate, with narrow stalk-like claw widening into more or less reflexed circular apex. Column short, twisted, on front with 2 thin close parallel rostellar arms descending downwards into saccate hypochile and 2 hemicircular wings. Anther acute. Stigma large, not divided.

10(1) species. Ryukyu Islands, Peninsular Malacca , Indonesia to Philippines , New Guinea and Vanuatu .

 

1. M . cupida Ormerod,

2002, Lindleyana, 17, 4: 212.

Described from S.Vietnam ("Dalat, cult. Hort. Bot. Parisiensis, 1959"). Type ( Tixier M- 918 ) - P.

Rachis pubescent, laxy 4-5 flowered. Floral bracts ovate-elliptic, acute, pubescent, 9.5 -9 mm long, 4 mm wide. Pedicel and ovary pubescent, to 12 mm long. Flowers glabrous, not resupinate. Sepals narrowly-ovate, acute, 8 mm long, 4 mm wide; lateral sepals recurved, oblique. Petals oblique narrowly-ovate, 8 mm long, 3 mm wide. Lip 3-lobed, 8.5 long, 5 mm wide. Hypochile subquadrate, saccate, sidelobes broadly rounded, with the apical quarter membranaceous; inside along median vein hypochile with a low fleshy keel terminating apically in an arrow shape about 4 mm long, 5 mm wide; hypochile glands terete with an enlarged apex. Claw linear, 4 mm long. Epichile cordate, acute, 1.5 mm long, 2 mm wide. Column erect, 6.5 mm tall. Anther basally ovoid, long rostrate, 5 mm long. Rostellar arms linear, 4 mm long. Stigma ventral, at the base of rostellum. Column wings subquadrate, ventral, 1 mm across. Fig. 35, l-n.

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong?).

Note. Insufficiently known species described on the base of fragment of inflorescence collected from alone cultivated specimen, origin of which needs verification. It may be related to widely cultivated M. petola, from which differs in broader narrowly-ovate petals and twice longer anther and rostellum.

 

Myrmechis Blume,

1859, Coll. Orchid.: 76

Type: M. gracilis (Blume) Blume ( Anoectochilus gracilis Blume).

Very small terrestrial, lithophytic or occasionally epiphytic sympodial herbs with creeping slender rhizome, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and 1-2(3) terminal flowers. Leaves few, spirally arranged, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, uniformly green, distant or crowded near apex. Scape short, with 1-3 sterile bracts. Flowers small, sessile, resupinate, hardly opening. Sepals free, subsimilar, lateral concave, oblique. Petals connivent to median sepal forming hood. Lip connate to the base of the column, long-clawed. Hypochile concave, with short, thick, paired warts on lateral sides. Mesochile prominent, narrow, with incurved margin. Epichile recurved, broad, 2-lobed. Column short, erect, with short erect rostellum and 2 small conical wings at front. Anther broadly-ovate. Pollinia 2, sectile, with caudicle and viscidium. Stigmas 2 on short lateral projections.

15(1) species. Tropical and subtropical Asia .

Fig. 35. Hetaeria oblongifolia: a flattened tepals and lip, b column and lip, side view, c
column, frontal view; H. affinis: d flattened tepals and lip, e column, frontal view; H. nitida:
f flattened tepals and lip, g column, frontal view and section of spur base. Ludisia discolor:
h flowering plant, i flattened tepals and lip, j flower, k column, side view and lip;
Macodes cupida: l flattened sepals and petal, m flattened lip, n column, side view;
Myrmechis pumila: o flowering plant, p flattened sepals, petal and lip, q column and lip,
side view, r floral bract.

 

1. M . pumila (Hook.f.) T.Tang et F.T.Wang,

1951, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 69. - Odontochilus pumilus Hook.f., 1890, Fl. Brit. India 6: 99. - Zeuxine langbianensis N.T.Tich, 2001, Orch. Vietnam 1: 214.

Described from NE. India ( India , Sikkim : alt. 8.000- 10.000 ft ). Type ( J.D.Hooker 325A ) K.

Terrestrial herb 6-10 cm tall. Leaves shortly petiolate, broadly-ovate to almost circular, to 1 cm long and wide, uniform green. Scape 2.5-3 cm long, with 1-2 flowers. Floral bracts ovate to broadly-ovate, 4.5 mm long, 3.8 mm wide, ciliate along margin. Sepals sub-similar, ovate 6 mm long, obtuse. Petals oblique narrowly-ovate, suddenly narrowed near the apex, pyriform, 5.8 mm long, 2.2 mm wide. Lip 5.6 mm long. Hypochile saccate, with 1 prominent midvein and 1 bilobed gland on each lateral vein. Epichile 2-lobed, with spreading oblique obovate lobes. Column short, with small horn-like frontal wings. Fig. 35, o-r.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved closed mossy forests on silicate soils. 21 00- 2150 m . Fl. July. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Kon Tum, Lam Dong ). Bhutan , Nepal , NE. India, Myanmar , S. China, Thailand .

Studied specimens. Kon Tum, Ngoc Linh mt., VH 627a (specimen lost); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Langbian mt., T.20.07.94b (icon Zeuxine langbianensis N.T.Tich, 2001, l .c.: 215).

 

Odontochilus Blume,

1859, Coll. Orchid.: 79. - Evrardi Ggnep., 1932, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. ( Paris ) 2 ser. 4, 5: 596. - Pristiglottis Cretz. et J.J.Sm., 1934, Acta Fauna Fl. Universali, ser. 2, Bot. 1, 14: 4. - Evrardianthe Ruschert, 1983, Feddes Repert. 94: 433. - Evrardian Aver., 1988, Bot. Journ. (Leningrd) 73, 3: 432.

Lectotype: O. flavescens (Blume) Blume ( Anoectochilus flavescens Blume).

Terrestrial and lithophytic sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal lax, few- to many flowered spike. Leaves few, spirally arranged, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, uniformly green. Scape leafless, with 2-4 sterile bracts. Flowers, sessile, resupinate or not. Sepals free. Petals very oblique, connivent to median sepal forming hood, lateral sepals spreading, concave, enclosing saccate base of lip. Lip adnate to column base. Hypochile concave to saccate to globose, with 2 fleshy branched papillae on lateral sides, rare without glands. Mesochile channeled, long to shortly fimbriate-toothed. Epichile with 2 divergent flabellate spreading lobes. Column short, fleshy, winged or keeled, with 2 rostellar arms. Anther triangular-ovate, acute. Pollinia 2, sectile, with stipe and viscidium. Stigma ventral, 1 or 2.

40(9) species. Tropical mainland Asia, Indonesia , New Guinea , Pacific Islands to Polynesia and adjacent islands.

Fig. 36. Cheirostylis latipetala: a (HAL 8526 and DKH 7659c, type); C. spathulata: b (Thailand,
s. coll.); Erythrodes hirsuta: c (HAL 2266 and HLF 5755); E. blumei: d (Vietnam, s. loc.);
Goodyera procera: e (HAL 6924 and HLF 5756); G. fumata: f (LX-VN 1811); G. hispida: g (HAL
9385); G. biflora: h (HAL 11135); G. viridiflora: i (DKH 7400 and HAL 6057).

Fig. 37. Goodyera foliosa: a (HAL 3967 and HAL 10027); G. schlechtendaliana: b (HLF 5257),
c (HAL 8404); Hetaeria anomala: d (HAL 6241); H. alta: e (HAL 7156); Hetaeria oblongifolia:
f (Averyanov 817, 1987); H. affinis: g (HLF 6591); H. nitida: h (HLF 6255 and NTH 5420G), i
(HLF 6255).

 

Key to species

 

1. Plants achlorophyllous, yellowish to pink-brown, all leaves reduced into small yellowish bracts . . . . . 2

-. Plants with normally developed green or purple-brown leaves . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

 

2. Flowers not resupinate, yellow to red-orange; lip 12- 15 mm long; epichile lobes lacinate . . .1. O. poilanei

-. Flowers resupinate, with brown sepals and white lip; lip 9- 10 mm long; epichile lobes with entire margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. O. saprophyticus

 

3. Leaves purple-brown to black-violet; scape with 1-2(3) not resupinate flowers; mesochile with purple-brown flanges . . . . . 3. O. elwesii

-. Leaves green; scape normally more than with 3 resupinate flowers; lip pure white or yellow . . . . . 4

 

4. Lip at the base straight, not concave or hardly concave, without any warts or glands inside . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. O. acalcaratus

-. Lip at the base distinctly concave to saccate, with distinct lateral warts or glands inside . . . . . . . . 5

 

5. Ovary glabrous; column with 2 stigmas . . . . . 6

-. Ovary tomentose or hairy; column with 1 stigma . . . . . 7

 

6. Lip white, with convergent semi-circular to broadly-obovate lobes, slightly erose along margin, 8- 9 mm long; spike few-flowered, 2-4 cm long; hypochile glands more or less straight, not uncinnate . . . . . 5. O. brevistylus

-. Lip yellow, with rather triangular-flabellate lobes, divided by broad sinus, entire along margin, 9- 12 mm long; spike many-flowered, 4- 12 cm long; hypochile glands uncinnate . . . . . 6. O. lanceolatus

 

7. Ovary and sepals densely hairy; lip 10- 12 mm long; flanges of mesochile entire or with few low insignificant teeth; lateral sepals not spreading, about 8 mm long; epichile lobes 6 mm long . . . . . . . . . 7. O. umbrosus

-. Ovary and sepals sparsely short hairy; lip 16- 20 mm long; flanges of mesochile with 3-5 long fringes; lateral sepals, 8- 10 mm long; epichile lobes 8- 12 mm long . . . . . . . . . 8

 

8. Sepals and petals uniform greenish, with 1-3 longitudinal veins, without distinct pinnate venation from mid-vein . . . . . . . . 8. O. tortus

-. Sepals and petals brownish to brownish-pink, with unclear whitish pinnate tessellation and distinct pinnate venation from mid-vein . . . . . . . . 9. O. inabai

 

1. O. poilanei (Gagnep.) Ormerod,

2002, Lindleyana, 17, 4: 225. - Evrardia poilanei Gagnep., 1932, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Paris) 2, ser. 4, 5: 596. - Hetaeria poilanei (Gagnep.) T.Tang & F.T.Wang, 1951, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 71. - Evrardianthe poilanei (Gagnep.) Ruschert, 1983, Feddes Repert. 94: 433; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 34 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 46. - Evrardian poilanei (Gagnep.) Aver. 1988, Bot. Journ. (Leningrd) 73, 3: 432. - Chamaegastrodia poilanei (Gagnep.) Seidenf. et A.N.Rao, 1994, Nord. Journ. Bot. 14: 297; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20.

Described from southern Vietnam ( Annam , Dlt"). Type (" Evrrd, 1807 ") - P.

Terrestrial achlorophyllous leafless herb up to 20 cm tall. Stem yellowish, glabrous, with many yellowish, broad, obtuse bracts and terminal lax spike with 2-10 flowers. Rachis shortly pubescent. Floral bracts ovate, acute, 8- 10 mm long, glabrous, ciliate along margin. Ovary shortly hairy, 8- 10 mm long. Flowers not resupinate, orange. Sepals shortly hairy at the base; median sepal ovate 4- 6 mm long; lateral sepals oblique-oblong, 8- 10 mm long. Petals, lanceolate, oblique, obtuse, as long as median sepal. Lip, 12- 18 mm long. Hypochile saccate, with 2 small simple warts. Mesochile narrow, with pectinate irregular toothed, finely papillose flanges. Epichile lobes spreading, triangular-flabellate, 6- 9 mm long, 5- 7 mm wide, irregular toothed or laciniate, with prominently elongated 2 adaxial lobules. Column stalked, 2- 3 mm tall, with 1 U-shaped stigma, 2 long rostellar arms and 2 large parallel wings at front below stigma. Anther ovate, acute, 1.6- 2 mm long. Fig. 38, a-c.

Ecology. P rimary and secondary humid broad-leaved forests on silicate soils. 1500- 16 00 m . Fl. October - November. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Kon Tum, Lam Dong). Myanmar , Thailand , Japan , S. China .

Studied specimens. Kontum, mt. Mamray, Poilane 18204 (P); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, WP 1212B (HN, LE).

 

2. O. saprophyticus (Aver.) Ormerod,

2003, Taiwania, 48, 3: 141. - Pristiglottis saprophytica Aver., 2003, in Aver. et Averyanova, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 54, 90, fig. 9.

Described from southern Vietnam (Lam Dong Prov., Lac Duong Distr., ... Nui Gia Rich ridge ...). Type (" VH 3977a ") HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Terrestrial achlorophyllous leafless herb up to 22 cm tall. Rhizome rootless, densely covered with root hairs. Stem pink-brown, glabrous, with many hyaline acuminate bracts and terminal lax spike with 3-15 flowers. Rachis pubescent to 10 cm long. Floral bracts elliptic, acuminate hairy, 6- 10 mm long. Ovary pubescent 7- 9 mm long. Sepals sub-similar, narrowly-ovate, sparsely hairy, pink-brown to olive-brown, 5- 6 mm long; lateral sepals slightly oblique, spreading. Petals white, lanceolate, obtuse, as long as sepals. Lip white, 9- 10 mm long. Hypochile saccate, with 2 large simple glands. Mesochile narrow, 4-5 mm long, with numerous warts and papillae on flanges. Epichile lobes spreading, sub-quadrate to hemi-circular, 4- 4.5 mm long, 3.5- 4 mm wide. Column narrowing to the base, 3.5- 4 mm tall, with 1 large circular stigma, 2 long rostellar arms and 2 parallel hemicircular wings at front. Anther narrowly-ovate, acute, 2- 2.5 mm long. Fig. 38, d-h; 43, d.

Ecology. P rimary humid broad-leaved forests on silicate soils, commonly on rich soils along shady stream slopes. 450- 15 00 m . Fl. April - May. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong, Thua Thien - Hue ).

Studied specimens. Thua Thien Hue , Huong Thuy, HAL 8194 (HN, LE); d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0018/HAL8194 .

 

3. O. elwesii C.B.Clarke ex Hook.f.,

1890, Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 100. - Anoectochilus elwesii (C.B.Clarke ex Hook.f.) King et Pantl., 1898, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. ( Calcutta ), 8: 297; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 31 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 44; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 10. A. daoensis Gagnep., 1951, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., 2 ser., 22, 5: 632; Seidenf., 1992, l .c.: 30 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 44.

Described from NE. India (" Darjeeling , Rishap; Khasia Hills, Shillong; Munipore, Kohima, Naga Hills "). Syntypes (" Clarke 12251; Clarke 44609; Prain 17 ") K.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb to 20 cm tall with 2-5 petiolate leaves at the base. Leaves ovate, acute, purple-brown to black-violet, 1.5- 4.5 cm long. Scape to 15 cm long, hairy, with 1-3 acute, hyaline bracts and 1-2(3) lax not resupinate flowers. Floral bracts lanceolate, acuminate, hairy, to 12 mm long. Ovary 10- 15 mm long, densely pubescent. Sepals olive to brown-green, long hairy, with acute, strongly recurved apex; median sepal ovate, 9- 11 mm long, with light pinkish apex; lateral sepals oblique-ovate, 10- 12 mm long, with, concave, hemi-spherical base, embracing lip base. Petals white, hemi-circular, strongly oblique, broad at the middle, attenuate toward the apex, as long as median sepal. Lip white, 1.6-2.5 cm long, basally globular, bifid, with 2 prominent conical glands. Mesochile pectinate with 4-6 purple-brown fringes. Epichile lobes triangular-flabellate, irregular-undulate along margin, 1- 1.5 cm long, 6- 8 mm wide, divided by a broad sinus. Column twisted, 2- 3 mm tall, with 2 stigmas and 2 appendages at the base. Anther beaked. Fig. 38, i-o; 43, e.

Ecology. P rimary and secondary wet broad-leaved forests, often with bamboo on any kind of soils. 300- 12 00 m . Fl. May - July. Not common (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan, Lai Chau, Lao Cai, Quang Binh, Thanh Hoa, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Phuc ) . Bhutan , Nepal , NE. India, Myanmar , Thailand , S. China, Taiwan .

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be, HLF 612 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4791 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Sin Ho, HAL 8835 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2003 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 5957 (HN, LE); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 3372 (HN, LE); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 1720 (HN, LE); Vinh Phu, Tam Dao, 23 Jan. 1988, Averyanov et al., LX-VN s.n. (LE), P-7452 (HN, LE).

 

4. O. acalcaratus (Aver.) Ormerod,

2002, Lindleyana, 17, 4: 225. Anoectochilus acalcaratus Aver., 1996, Bot. Journ. (St.Petersburg), 81, 10: 73, fig. 1; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 10.

Described from southern Vietnam ("Prov. Kontum ... N. slope of Ngoc Linh mountain ..."). Type (" VH 627 ") LE (holotype), AAU, HN, MO, P (isotypes).

Terrestrial herb up to 20 cm tall with 3-5 dark velvety green leaves at the base. Leaves shortly petiolate, narrowly-ovate to ovate, 3.5- 7 cm long, usually finely undulate along margin. Scape 3- 6 cm tall with 2-3 small sessile leaves. Rachis hairy 2- 5 cm long with 4-8 lax flowers. Floral bracts hairy, 8- 10 mm long, longer than ovary. Sepals sub-similar, light green, elliptic, sparsely hairy, 8- 10 mm long 3- 4 mm wide. Petals white, lanceolate, 6 mm long. Lip white, little longer than sepals, at the base straight, not concave, without glands, with longitudinal low keel. Mesochile narrow, straight, 5 mm long, with 3-5 small teeth. Lobes of epichile spreading, hemicircular, 4- 4.5 mm long, 2.5- 3 mm wide. Column 3 mm tall, with 2 stigmas. Fig. 38, p-t.

Ecology. P rimary evergreen mossy forests on silicate soils, commonly along shady wet streams canyons. 210 0- 2450 m . Fl. June - July. Locally common (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Kon Tum ) .

Studied specimens. Kontum, Ngoc Linh mt., VH 539 (HN, LE).

 

5. O. brevistylus Hook.f.,

1890, Fl. Brit. Ind., 6: 100. - Anoectochilus brevistylus (Hook.f.) Ridl., 1907, Mat. Fl. Malay. Penins. 1: 214; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 31 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 43; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 10. - Anoectochilus tonkinensis Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Mus. Paris 2, ser. 3, 7: 679.

Described from Malacca Peninsula ("Perak, on Gunong Batu Pateh, alt. 3400 ft ."). Type ("Wray s.n.") - K?

Herb to 30 cm tall with 5-6 distant pure green petiolate leaves. Leaves narrowly-ovate to ovate, acute, 4.5- 7 cm long. Scape short, 2-4 cm long, with lax spike 2-4 cm long of 6-10 flowers. Floral bracts narrowly-ovate, acuminate, to 10 mm long, a little shorter than ovary. Ovary glabrous. Sepals sub-similar, ovate, 7- 8 mm long, green, sparsely hairy; lateral sepals swollen at the base, enclosing base of lip. Petals, strongly oblique, falcate with attenuate apex, as long as median sepal. Lip white, 10- 14 mm long, basally shortly globular, bifid, with prominent longitudinal ridge and flat quadrangular gland on each side. Mesochile 7- 8 mm long, laterally with 3-4 long fringes. Epichile lobes 8- 9 mm long, 5- 6 mm wide, semi-circular to broadly-obovate, slightly irregularly toothed, divided by broad sinus. Column short, 2.5- 3 mm tall, with 2 stigmas, short rostellar arms and 2 small insignificant wings at the base. Fig. 39, a , b.

Ecology. Humid broad-leaved forests. 1400- 16 00 m . Fl.? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lao Cai). Thailand , S. China, Taiwan , Malacca Peninsula .

Studied specimens. Chapa, Tonkin , Petelot s.n. (P).

Fig. 38. Odontochilus poilanei: a flowering plant, b flattened tepals and lip, c column,
side view; O. saprophyticus: d flowering plant, e flattened tepals and lip, f fragment of
mesochile, g column, side view, h pollinarium; O. elwesii: i inflorescence, j flower and
flower without lateral sepals and epichile, k section of spur and hypochile, l flattened lip,
m section of spur base, n column, frontal view, o pollinarium; O. acalcaratus: p flowering
plant, q flower and fragment of inflorescence, r flower without lateral sepal and column with
lip, side view, s flattened tepals and lip, t column, ventral and dorsal views.

6. O. lanceolatus (Lindl.) Blume,

1859, Coll. Orchid.: 80. - Anoectochilus lanceolatus Lindl., 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. : 499; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 30 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 43; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11.

Described from NE. India ( Assam ; Khasia, Mishmee Hills). Syntypes ( Mack s.n.; Griffith s.n. ) K.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb to 35 cm tall with 5-7 distant petiolate leaves. Leaves ovate, 4-10 cm long. Scape short, 5- 6 cm long, pubescent with lax many flowered spike 4-10 cm long. Floral bracts narrowly-ovate acuminate, 8- 15 mm long. Ovary 8- 10 mm long, glabrous. Sepals and petals pale green; median sepal ovate, acute, 5- 7 mm long; lateral sepals ovate-oblong, oblique, spreading, 7- 8 mm long. Petals, strongly oblique, hemi-circular with attenuate apex, 5- 7 mm long, 2- 2.5 mm wide. Lip yellow, 16- 18 mm long, basally shortly globular, bifid, with 2 slender uncinnate glands. Mesochile 6- 8 mm long, laterally with 5-7 rair fringes. Epichile lobes spreading, triangular-flabellate, 8- 10 mm long, 4- 6 mm wide. Column stout, 2- 3 mm tall, with 2 stigmas, large elongate, bifid rostellum and 2 prominent vertical parallel wings at the base. Anther narrowly-ovate, beaked, 2.5- 3 mm long. Fruit erect fusiform capsule 1- 1.2 cm long. Fig. 39, c-e.

Ecology. P rimary humid broad-leaved forests, usually along shady stream canyons on any kind of soils. 1200- 13 00 m . Fl. August - September. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Ha Giang, Ha Noi, Lao Cai ) . Bhutan , Nepal , NE. India, S. China, Thailand .

Studied specimens. Bavi mt., Balansa 2005 (P); Chapa, Petelot 5194 (P); Ha Giang, Vi Xuyen, DKH 5316 (HN, LE, MO).

 

7. O. umbrosus (Aver.) Ormerod,

2002, Lindleyana, 17, 4: 225. Pristiglottis umbrosa Aver., 1996, Bot. Journ. (St.Petersburg) 81, 10: 78, fig. 3; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 54.

Described from southern Vietnam (Kontum Prov., Dak Gley Distr., ...). Type ( VH 1932 ) LE (holotype), HN, MO (isotypes).

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb to 25 cm tall with 5-7 more or less distant petiolate leaves. Leaves ovate, dark green, sometimes finely undulate along margin, to 8 cm long, 3.5 cm wide. Scape 5- 7 cm long, usually with 1 rudimentary leaf. Rachis pubescent, 3- 8 cm long, with 8-14 lax flowers. Floral bracts pubescent, 8- 10 mm long, not longer than ovary. Ovary 10- 12 mm long, densely pubescent. Sepals brown to brown-green, sparsely pubescent; median sepal ovate, acute, 6- 7 mm long; lateral sepals ovate, oblique, 8 mm long. Petals white, strongly oblique, with broad base and attenuate apex, 6 mm long, 3 mm wide at the base. Lip white, 10- 12 mm long, basally shortly globular, bilobulate, with 2-3 close glands on each side. Mesochile 6 mm long, laterally with 4-5 short fringes. Epichile lobes spreading, ovate, 6 mm long, 4 mm wide. Column twisted, about 1 mm long, with 1 stigma and 2 small vertical wings at the base. Anther narrowly-ovate, brightly red, 4 mm long. Fig. 39, f-k; 43, f .

Ecology. P rimary humid broad-leaved forests, usually along shady stream canyons on silicate soils. 1000- 15 00 m . Fl. October - January. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dak Nong, Kon Tum).

Studied specimens. Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5611a (HN, LE).

 

8. O. tortus King et Pantl.,

1896, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 2, Nat. Hist. 65: 125. - Anoectochilus tortus (King et Pantl.) King et Pantl., 1898, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. ( Calcutta ) 8: 298, tab. 396. - Pristiglottis torta (King et Pantl.) Aver., 1996, Bot. Journ. (St.Petersburg) 81, 10: 78. - Anoectochilus repens auct. non (Downie) Seidenf. et Smitinand: Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11.

Described from northern India ( Darjeeling (Duars) Kumai). Type ( Pantling 354 ) CAL (holotype), BM, K (isotypes).

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb to 30 cm tall with 4-7 distant petiolate leaves. Leaves ovate, uniform green, 4- 7 cm long. Scape short, 4- 5 cm long, pubescent with lax many flowered spike 4-10 cm long. Floral bracts narrowly-ovate, acuminate, finely pubescent, 8- 12 mm long. Ovary hairy, 8- 12 mm long. Sepals and petals greenish. Sepals sparsely long hairy; median sepal ovate, acute, 5- 8 mm long; lateral sepals ovate-oblong, oblique, spreading, 7- 10 mm long. Petals, strongly oblique, falcate with attenuate apex, as long as median sepal. Lip pure white, 12- 16 mm long, basally shortly globular, with 2 thick close massive straight conical glands on each side. Mesochile 5- 7 mm long, laterally with 5-7 pair long fringes. Epichile lobes spreading, hemi-circular to broadly-obovate, 4- 7 mm long and wide. Column stout, 2.5- 3.5 mm tall, with 1 semi-circular stigma, conical rostellar arms and 2 small vertical wings at the base. Anther narrowly-ovate, beaked, 2.5- 3 mm long. Fig. 39, l-n.

Ecology. C losed humid broad-leaved forests on rocky limestone in shady, wet places. 400- 95 0 m . Fl. June - August. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ninh Binh). Bhutan , N. India, S. China, Taiwan .

Studied specimens. Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong national park, HAL 1670 (HN, LE).

Fig. 39. Odontochilus brevistylus: a flower, b section of spur base; O. lanceolatus: c
flower, d section of spur base, e column, side view; O. umbrosus: f flowering plant, g
flower, h flattened tepals and lip, i anther and base of spur, view from above, j base of lip,
view from below, k column, half-side and frontal views; O. tortus: l flattened tepals, m
flattened lip and column, side view, n section ob spur base; O. inabai: o flower.

 

9. O. inabai (Hayata) T.P.Lin,

1975, Nat. Orch. , Taiwan : 216. Anoectochilus inabai Hayata, 1914, Icon. Pl. Formos. 4: 102, pl. 14.

Described from Taiwan (Rinkiho, ad 5000 ped. alt.). Type (H.Inaba, Aug. 1911) TI?

On its vegetative features this species resembles O. tortus , but differs in slightly larger flowers, as well as brownish to brownish-pink sepals and petals, with irregular pinnate whitish tessellation and pinnate venation. Fig, 39, o; 43, g .

Ecology. C losed humid broad-leaved forests on rocky limestone. 900-100 0 m. Fl. June - August. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Hoa Binh ). Taiwan .

Studied specimens. Hoa Binh , Mai Chau , HAL 9002 (HN).

 

Orchipedum Breda, Kuhl et Hasselt ,

1827, Gen. Sp. Orch. Asclep.: tab. 10.

Type : O. plantaginifolium Breda

Terrestrial sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal many flowered spike. Leaves few, spirally arranged, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, uniformly green. Scape leafless, with 2-4 large sterile bracts. Flowers, sessile, resupinate. Sepals free. Petals oblique-obovate, joined in apical part and connivent to median sepal forming hood; lateral sepals spreading, with concave base, enclosing saccate base of lip. Lip adnate to column base, spurred, 3-lobed. Spur globose, slightly bifid, curved forwards under the blade, containing dense group of fleshy hairs on each side. Base of lip with erect rounded side lobes embracing column base, inside with 2 erect semi-circular parallel keels. Median lobe with narrow clawed base suddenly broadening into spreading lobules. Column narrow, bended, with 1 stigma and narrow winged rostellar arms; anther narrowly ovate acute. Pollinium sectile, very long, to 5 mm long, with stipe and viscidium.

3(1) species. Vietnam , Malacca Peninsular, Java, Sumatra , Philippines .

 

O. echinatum Aver. et Averyanova,

2006, Komarovia, 4: 29, fig. 13.

Described from southern Vietnam (Thua Thien Hue Prov., Phu Loc Distr., Bach Ma national park, S. slope of Bach Ma mt., below Hai Vong Dai peak"). Type (" HLF 1296 ") HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Stem 20- 25 cm tall, with 4-6 uniformly green petiolate leaves, 8- 13 cm long, 2.5-4 cm wide. Scape 6- 9 cm long, with 2-4 yellowish, broad, acuminate bracts 3- 1.5 cm long; scape, rachis, floral bracts, ovary and sepals glandular hairy. Rachis 7- 9 cm long with numerous sessile, odorless flowers, 1.8-2 cm across. Floral bracts lanceolate 11- 18 mm long. Sepals greenish to olive-pink, sub-similar, ovate, 10- 12 mm long; median sepal hooded, forward directed; lateral oblique at the base, spreading. Petals thin, hyaline, white, oblique-obovate, 9- 10 mm long, connate in the apical third. Lip 9- 10 mm long, white . Spur globular, 3- 3.5 mm across, inside on each side with very large gland densely covered with numerous long thick papillae. Base of lip with erect semi-circular crisped side lobes and 2 semi-circular erect parallel keels. Mesochile irregularly grooved on sides, narrowing toward epichile. Epichile lobes spreading, flat, rectangular to obovate, 1.5- 3 mm long, 1.5- 2 mm wide, irregularly serrate along margin. Column simple, narrow, 9- 10 mm long, bent forward at the middle, with narrowly-ovate stigma at front. Anther and pollinarium 6 mm long. Fig. 40, a-g; 43, h.

Ecology. Coniferous, mixed and broad-leaved evergreen forests on shale and sandstone, commonly along shady streams. 1000- 1100 m . Fl. April - May. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Thua Thien - Hue ).

Note. Species is known up to now only by alone type collection.

 

Rhomboda Lindl.,

1857, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 1: 181.

Type: Rhomboda longifolia Lindl.

Terrestrial and lithophytic sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal few- to many-flowered spike. Leaves few, spirally arranged in basal part of stem, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, velvety dark green, brown-green to nearly black, often with white or pink longitudinal median stripe. Scape leafless, with 2-4 sterile yellowish bracts. Flowers, sessile, resupinate or not. Sepals free. Petals oblique, connivent to median sepal forming hood, lateral sepals spreading. Lip adnate to column base, broadly saccate at the base. Hypochile, with 2 short large peltate glands on lateral sides, rounded side lobes and 2 prominent lamellate, closely parallel keels, sometime with a low keel on flanges. Mesochile channeled, clawed, usually very short. Epichile entire to 2-lobed. Column clavate, with 2 wings at front, 2 lateral stigmas and slender rostellum. Anther ovate, acute. Pollinia 2, sectile, with stipe and viscidium.

22(3) species. Bhutan, Nepal, NE. India, S. China, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, NE. Australia.

 

Key to species

 

1. Flowers more than 5 mm across; lip 9- 12 mm long; sepals dark purple-brown . . . . . 1. R. petelotii

-. Flowers less than 5 mm across; lip less than 5 mm long; sepals pale brown or greenish . . . . . 2

 

2. Epichile entire, broadly-ovate to circular; ovaries erect, densely adpressed to the rachis . . . . . 2. R. tokioi

-. Epichile 2-lobed, with spreading acute lobes; ovaries spreading, not adpressed to the rachis . . . . . 3. R. lanceolata

 

1. R. petelotii (Gagnep.) Ormerod,

1998, Austral. Orchid Rev. 63: 11; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11. - Haemaria petelotii Gagnep., 1933, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 80: 349. - Anoectochilus petelotii (Gagnep.) Seidenf., 1975, Contr. Revis. Orch. Fl. Cambodia. Laos Vietnam : 7. Ludisia discolour auct. non (Ker Gawl.) A.Rich.: Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 29, p.p.

Described from northern Vietnam (" Tonkin : Cha-pa, 1.500 1.600 m ."). Type (" Petelot, 5166 ") P (holotype), C (isotype).

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb 20- 35 cm tall with 3-5 petiolate leaves in basal rosette. Leaves ovate, 4- 7 cm long, acute velvety dark green, purple-brown to nearly black, with 1 (rarely 3) white to light pink longitudinal stripes. Scape 7- 12 cm tall, shortly pubescent, with 2-3 cuneate, acuminate, yellowish bracts. Rachis 6- 15 cm long with many not resupinate flowers. Ovary glabrous, 10- 15 mm long. Floral bracts sparsely pubescent at the base, ciliate along margin, narrowly-ovate, acuminate, as long as, or slightly shorter than ovary. Sepals purple-brown, free, sparsely pubescent at the base; median sepal narrowly ovate, acute, 7- 9 mm long, with recurved apex; lateral sepals oblique-ovate, narrowing to the apex, 8- 10 mm long. Petals brown, narrowly-ovate, oblique, falcate, acuminate, as long as median sepal. Lip, 9- 10 mm long. Hypochile purple to purple-brown, saccate, 5- 6 mm long, 4-5 mm wide, with 2 roundish, erect side lobes, 2 large stalked hemi-circular gland at the base, 1 short tall triangular lamellate keel along midrib and lamellate, finely serrulate lateral longitudinal flanges outside. Epichile joined to hypochile with a short claw, sometimes twisted on 180?. Epichile lobes circular, spreading, irregular wavy, 5- 6 mm across. Column conical, 4-5 mm tall, with 2 large broad, triangular wavy wings at front, acute bifid rostellum and 2 lateral stigmas touching at front. Anther acuminate at the apex. Fruits ellipsoid capsule, 12- 15 mm long, 3- 5.5 mm wide. Fig. 40, h-l; 43, i.

Ecology. Humid forests on rich soils, mainly on rocky limestone. 700- 2000 m . Fl. July - August (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan, Cao Bang , Ha Giang, Hoa Binh , Kon Tum, Lai Chau , Lam Dong, Lao Cai , Quang Binh , Son La , Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien Hue).

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be national park, HLF 514 (HN, LE), HLF 552 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Cho Don, HLF 761 (HN, LE), HLF 804 (HN), HAL 4790 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Na Ri, HAL 4924 (HN); Cao Bang , Bao Lac, CBL 312 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Tra Linh, CBL 983 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Trung Khanh , HAL 5561 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Bac Me, HAL 6577 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Meo Vac, NTH 3442 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, NTH 3603 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Yen Minh, NTH 3459 (HN, LE), NTH 3459 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh , Da Bac, HAL 467/a (HN, LE); Hoa Binh , Mai Chau , HAL 641 ( HN , LE ), HAL 690 ( HN , LE ), DKH 7716 (H, LE, MO), DKH 7921 (HN, LE, MO); Kon Tum , Dak Gley , VH 1850 ( HN , LE ); Kon Tum, Kon Plong, VH 5439 (HN); Lai Chau, Sin Ho, HAL 9962 (HN), HAL 10050 (HN); Lai Chau , Tam Duong , HAL 10254 ( HN ); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Hon Giao ridge, VH 4132 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2013 (HN, LE), HAL 2316 (HN), HAL 2656 (HN, LE); Quang Binh , Bo Trach , HAL 6059 ( HN , LE ), HAL 6141 ( HN , LE photo ); Son La , Moc Chau , DKH 7322 ( HN , LE , MO ), DKH 7357 ( HN , LE , MO ), DKH 7452 a ( HN , LE , MO ), DKH 7453 ( HN , LE , MO ); Son La , Moc Chau , HAL 9304 ( HN ); Son La , Thuan Chau , HAL 9632 ( HN ); Son La , Yen Chau , DKH 7204 ( HN , LE , MO ), HAL 9435 ( HN ); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 3495 (HN, LE); Thua Thien Hue, A Luoi, HAL 7682 (HN), HAL 7683 (HN, LE); Thua Thien - Hue, Bach Ma national park, HLF 943 (HN, LE), HLF 1002 (HN, LE).

Note. Taxonomically very isolated species, which differs in touching stigma lobes, serrulate lamellate flanges of mesochile, large alone median keel on the lip disc and usually twisted claw. The plant is not rare in limestone areas of northern Vietnam and may be certainly found in allied limestone regions of Laos and China .

 

2. R. tokioi ( Fukuyama ) Ormerod,

1998, Austral. Orchid Rev. 63, 4: 11. - Hetaeria tokioi Fukuyama , 1934, Bot. Mag. ( Tokyo ) 48: 434. - Hetaeria pauciflora auct. non Ridl.: Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 39; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 33. - Rhomboda pau ciflora auct. non (Ridl.) Ormerod: Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 54.

Described from Taiwan ( Taiwan Taikohu Praef., near Urai). Type (09-1932, Suzuki-Tokio 4128 ) TI?

Terrestrial herb 8- 17 cm tall. Leaves shortly petiolate, 2- 4, in basal rosette, narrowly-ovate to ovate, acute, 2- 6 cm long, velvety green with indistinct median whitish stripe. Scape shortly tomentose, 4- 7 cm tall, with 2-3 cuneate, acuminate bracts. Rachis 2.5- 7 cm long, with numerous lax hardly opening flowers. Floral bracts narrowly-ovate, acute, sparsely hairy and ciliate along margin, 5- 10 mm long. Ovary erect, adpressed to the rachis, glabrous, longer than floral bracts. Sepals greenish-brown, similar, ovate, 3.5- 4.5 mm long, obtuse, glabrous. Petals white, oblanceolate, blunt at the apex, as long as sepals. Lip white, ovate, concave, as long as sepals. Hypochile with 2 stalked, warty glands at the base and 2 short semi-circular keels inside. Epichile ovate to sub-circular, 0.8 mm across. Column conical, 2.5- 3 mm tall, with 2 parallel keels at front and narrow bifid acute rostellum. Anther narrowly ovate, acuminate. Fig. 40, m , n; 44, a .

Ecology. Humid broad-leaved lowland forests on silicate soils. 400- 450 m . Fl. May June. Rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ha Tinh). Japan , SE. China, Hainan , Taiwan .

Studied specimens. Ha Tinh, Huong Son, HAL 5216 (LE); Vietnam , sine loc., 1985, Averyanov et al., LX-VN s.n. (LE).

Note. Available specimens from Vietnam differ in glabrous ovary and sepals and may be present separate variety.

 

3. R. lanceolata (Lindl.) Ormerod,

1995, Orchadian, 11: 329 - Dossinia lanceolata Lindl., 1857, J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 1: 186. - Anoectochilus pomrangianus Seidenf., 1978, Dansk Bot. Ark. 32, 2: 41; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11; N.T.Tich, 2001, Orch. Viet Nam : 178.

Described from NE. India ( India , Khasia, Pomrang). Type ( Hooker & Thomson s.n. ) K.

Herb 10- 25 cm tall with glabrous stem. Leaves 3-4, distant on 1.5 -2 cm , petiolate, lanceolate, acute, 3- 6 cm long. Scape 7- 8 cm tall, with 2-3 lanceolate, acute sterile bracts and 10-14 lax flowers. Rachis 5- 6 cm long. Floral bracts lanceolate, ciliate along margin, 3- 9 mm long. Ovary twisted, 6- 9 mm long. Flowers sub-globose, about 3 mm across. Sepals similar, pale brown, ovate, acute, 3.5- 4.5 mm long. Petals white, oblique-ovate, obtuse, about 4 mm long. Lip white with pale yellowish base, longer than sepals, saccate at the base, 4- 4.5 mm long, 3 mm wide; sac with 2 lamellate keels along midrib and large callus on each side; apex decurved, 2-lobe, with central apiculus; epichile lobes oblique-ovate. Column 2- 3 mm tall. Pollinia clavate, 2 mm long. Fig. 41, a .

Ecology. Mountain forests. 1500 m . Fl.? (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong). NE. India, Malaysia, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Philippines.

Note. The species is reported according to data of Nguyen Thien Tich (l.c.), who found it in Lam Dong province, Langbian mountain. Voucher herbarium specimens were not preserved. Occurrence of species in Vietnam needs confirmation.

Fig. 40. Orchipedum echinatum: a flowering plant, b flower, c flattened tepals, d lip, side
view and lip longitudinal section, e spur cross section and spur glands, f column, side and
frontal views, g pollinarium; Rhomboda petelotii: h fruiting plant, i flattened tepals and lip,
j lip, without side lobe, k column, side view and longitudinal section of lip base, l column,
frontal view; R. tokioi: m flattened flower, without column, n column, side and frontal views.

 

Vrydagzynea Blume,

1858, Coll. Orch. Arch. Ind. Jap.: 71. - Vridagzenia Benth., 1881, Journ. Linn. Soc. London (Bot.) 18: 344, orth. var. rej.

Lectotype: V. albida (Blume) Blume ( Etaeria albida Blume).

Terrestrial and lithophytic sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal few flowered, rather dense spike. Leaves few, spirally arranged, petiolate, sheathing at the base, more or less distant or crowded at the stem apex, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, green to purple, sometimes with median whitish stripe, acute. Scape short, leafless, with 1-2 sterile bracts. Flowers small, sessile, resupinate, not widely opening. Sepals free, very fleshy, succulent. Petals connivent to median sepal forming hood. Lip simple, ovate, fleshy, conical, with spur. Spur saccate to cylindric, with 2 glands at the base. Column short, erect, with short bifid rostellum, wingless or with 2 insignificant wings at front. Anther ovate, obtuse. Pollinia 2, sectile, with caudicle and viscidium. Stigma with 2 separated lobes.

35(1) species. Tropical and subtropical Asia, northeastern Australia to islands of W. Pacific.

 

V. formosana Hayata,

1916, Icon. Pl. Formos. 6: 88. - V. albida auct. non (Blume) Blume, 1858: Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 30; Aver., 1994, Ident. Guide Vietnam . Orch.: 34; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checkl. Orch. Vietnam : 61.

Described from Taiwan (Inter Urai et Agioku ). Type (leg. D. Hayata , Mai. 1916 ) - TI?

Herb 4- 20 cm tall. Leaves 4-6, petiolate, ovate, 2-4 cm long, uniform green, acute. Scape sparsely pubescent, ebracteate or with 1-3 acuminate bracts, 2-5 mm long. Rachis densely tomentose, 1-3 cm long, elongate in fruits up to 12 cm , with 3-20 close flowers. Floral bracts narrowly-ovate, acuminate, 6- 10 mm long. Ovary 5- 8 mm long. Flowers hardly opening, 3- 4 mm long, white, later yellowish, base of sepals and spur green to olive-green, later dull orange to red. Sepals sub-similar, narrowly-ovate, very fleshy, 3.5-5 mm long, 1.5- 2 mm wide, blunt. Petals lanceolate of the same length, connivent to dorsal sepal. Lip 3- 3.5 mm long, spurred, fleshy and finely papillose along mid-vein, attenuate to short fleshy blunt tip, lateral sides thin incurved; lip blade being flattened broadly ovate to almost orbicular. Spur broadly-conic, 3.5- 4 mm long, with 2 stalked glands. Fruit erect elliptic capsule, 8- 10 mm long, 3 mm wide. Fig. 41, b; 44, b.

Ecology. Humid forests on any kind of soils, commonly along wet, shady stream and river valleys . 30 0- 1100 m . Fl. January - April. Not rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ha Tinh, Hoa Binh , Lao Cai, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien Hue , Tuyen Quang ). SE. China, Taiwan , Laos .

Studied specimens. Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong, sine date, Bong 146 (HN), LX-VN 1767 (LE); Ha Tinh, Huong Son, HAL 5215a (HN, LE); Hoa Binh , Da Bac, HAL 440 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, DKH 6678a (HN, LE, MO), HAL 2748 (HN, LE); Nghe An, Tuong Duong, HLF 6738 (HN), HLF 6930 (HN); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6058 (HN, LE), HAL 6148 (HN, LE), HAL 6229 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Quang Ninh, HAL 6316 (HN, LE) d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0005/HAL6316 ; Quang Tri, Da Krong, HLF 6192 (HN); Thua Thien Hue, Nam Dong, HAL 11129 (HN), HAL 6896a (HN, LE); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 221 (HN, LE).

Note. Species closely related to V. albida (Blume) Blume, from which it differs in hairy rachis, floral bracts and ovary, as well as almost rounded to emarginate lip (when flattened) with very thin incurved lateral margins. Fairly common species in northern Vietnam , particularly in wet forests on rocky limestone. Easily overlooked in botanical studies and collecting due to dwarf habit and unattractive appearance of flowers. All seen collections from Vietnam belong to this species, which replaces V. albida (distributed in Myanmar , Thailand , Peninsular Malaysia, Indonesia , Philippines and New Guinea ) in Eastern Indochina, mainland SE. China and in Taiwan .

 

Zeuxine Lindl.,

1826, Collect. Bot. App. N 18 (sub " Zeuxina " - orth. var. rej.); id., 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. : 485, nom. conserv.

Type: Z. sulcata (Roxb.) Lindl. ( Pterygodium sulcatum Roxb.; Zeuxine strateumatica (L.) Schlechter).

Terrestrial and lithophytic sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal few- to many flowered spike. Leaves few, spirally arranged, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, uniformly green or with median whitish stripe, acute, rarely conduplicate, grass-like. Scape leafless, with 2-4 sterile bracts. Flowers small, sessile, resupinate. Sepals free. Petals connivent to median sepal forming hood, lateral sepals spreading. Lip spurless. Hypochile concave to saccate, with various papillae on lateral sides. Epichile reflexed, circular-obovate or 2-lobed, connected to hypochile by a short claw. Column short, erect, with 2 prominent rostellar arms and 2 wings at front. Anther narrowly triangular-ovate, acute. Pollinia 2, sectile, with caudicle and viscidium. Stigma with 2, small, convex, separated lobes.

70(7) species. Africa, tropical and subtropical Asia, Indonesia , Philippines , Australia , New Guinea , Pacific Islands to Samoa .

 

Key to species

 

1. Leaves linear, conduplicate, grass-like . . . . . 1. Z. strateumatica

-. Leaves lanceolate to almost circular, plicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

 

2. Epichile entire, circular or obcordate . . . . . 2. Z. goodyeroides

-. Epichile distinctly 2-lobed . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

 

3. Epichile with divergent lobes 6- 8 mm long; sepals 7- 8 mm long . . . . . 3. Z. grandis

-. Epichile with spreading lobes less than 3 mm long; sepals less than 6 mm long. . . . . . . . . . 4

 

4. Column with large, protruding quadrate or triangular flat vertical wings on front; petals very oblique, suddenly narrowing toward the obtuse apex . . . . . 4. Z. nervosa

-. Column with insignificant, hardly visible wings on front; petals not much oblique narrowing to the apex . . . . . . . . . 5

 

5. Lip white, 3- 4 mm long; epichile lobes rectangular, about twice as long as wide . . . . . 5. Z. parvifolia

-. Lip yellow, 2- 3 mm long; epichile lobes squarish to obovate, less than twice as long as wide . . . . . . . . . 6. Z. flava

 

1. Z. strateumatica (L.) Schlechter,

1911, Bot. Jahrb. 45: 394; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 37 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 38; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 61. - Orchis strateumtica L., 1753, Sp. Pl. : 943. - Zeuxine bonii Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., 2. s. 3: 326. - Z. evrardii Gagnep., 1931, l .c.: 326 (1931).

Described from Sri Lanka ("in Zeylon"). Type (" Hermann s.n. ") - BM.

Stem erect, slender, to 20 cm tall, leafy. Leaves erect, conduplicate, linear, grass-like, acute, to 6 cm long. Inflorescence many-flowered cylindric dense spike 1-4 cm long. Ovary glabrous, 5- 7 mm long. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, reddish-yellow, 4- 10 mm long. Sepals white, sub similar, ovate, obtuse, 3- 4 mm long, glabrous. Petals of the same length, white, oblique narrowly-obovate, obtuse. Lip shortly saccate, with 2 glands, 3- 3.5 mm long; claw short, fleshy, papillose and grooved. Epichile small, transversely oblong-reniform, papillose, blunt, yellow-green. Column short, 1.5- 2 mm tall. Fig. 41, c-f.

Ecology. Wet secondary grasslands, open wet places along stream and river valleys. 5 0- 1500 m . Fl. January - February. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Cao Bang , Ha Noi, Ha Tinh, Lam Dong , Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Thanh Hoa ). Tropical and subtropical Asia, Japan , Taiwan , Philippines , Indonesia to New Guinea .

Studied specimens. Cao Bang ; Ha Noi, Kien-Khe, mont Den; Ha Son Binh, Rocher de Notre Dame, riviere Noire; Lam Dong, Dalat, Camly; Lang-bian; Nghe Tinh; Thanh Hoa; Tonkin, delta du Fleuve Rouge; Tonkin, Mong-ho, Fleuve Rouge.

Note. Very variable and widespread species escaped and naturalized in Florida and Cuba . Recently it, probably, become much rarer as did not been collected in Vietnam during last 50 years.

 

2. Z. goodyeroides Lindl.,

1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. : 486.- Z. bidupensis Aver., 2006, Rheedea, 16, 1: 12, fig. 7g, h & 9.

Described from NE. India ( India , Assam ...). Type ( Griffith 7 ) K.

Terrestrial herb. Stem 15- 20 cm tall with 4-6 leaves. Petiole and sheath 5- 10 mm long; leaf blade ovate to narrowly-ovate, acute, 2-4 cm long, dark velvety green to green-brown, sometime with median whitish stripe. Scape and rachis sparsely pubescent, rachis lax flowered, commonly with 3-10 flowers. Floral bracts dull reddish-brown, triangular-ovate, acuminate, glabrous, erose-ciliate along the margin, 4- 7 mm long, 2- 3 mm wide. Ovary dark olive-green, cylindric, glabrous, 8- 10 mm long. Flowers odorless. Sepals olive-brown, glabrous, sub-similar, narrowly-ovate, acute, 5.5- 6 mm long; dorsal sepal wider. Petals white, oblique, falcate, rising from narrow base to oblique broad obtuse apical part, 5- 5.5 mm long. Lip 4- 4.5 mm long, 2.5- 3 mm wide. Hypochile yellowish, ovate, concave, 2.5- 3 mm long, 2.5- 3 mm wide, with 2 swollen nerves and 2 hooked or indistinctly T-shaped glands inside; margins incurved, fleshy, coming apically into 2 papillose swellings. Epichile white, entire, circular or obcordate, 1- 1.2 mm long, 1.2- 1.4 mm wide, with finely crenulate margin. Column 2.5- 3 mm tall, with 2 short triangular acute wings at front and 2 long narrow falcate apical rostellum arms. Anther narrowly-ovate, acuminate, 2.2- 2.5 mm long. Pollinia massulae brown, triangular, 0.1 mm across. Fig. 41, g-k; 44, c.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved and coniferous closed forests on silicate soils. 15 00- 1900 m . Fl. November - January. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Lai Chau, Lam Dong ). Bhutan, NE. India , Myanmar , S. China .

Studied specimens. Lai Chau, Phong Tho, HAL 10670 (HN, LE), HAL 10672 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Gia Rich mt., HLF 5319 (HN, LE).

 

3. Z. grandis Seidenf.,

1978, Dansk Bot. Ark. 32: 90. Z. affinis auct. non (Lindl.) Benth ex Hook.f.: Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 61.

Described from Thailand ( Omkoi Road at km 13 ). Type ( GT 7730 ) C.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb. Stem 8- 25 cm tall with 2-6 leaves, usually withered at the time of flowering . Leaves petiolate; narrowly-ovate, 1.5-4 cm long, uniform dull green, acute. Scape and rachis densely pubescent, rachis to 6 cm long, with 1-10 lax flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, pubescent, 6- 12 mm long. Ovary pubescent, 5- 9 mm long. Sepals olive-green to light pinkish, pubescent outside, sub-similar, ovate, 7- 8 mm long, concave, obtuse. Petals of the same length or longer, white, oblique narrowly-obovate to oblong-spathulate, roundish at the apex. Lip white, with light yellow-brownish central spot on epichile, 10- 13 mm long. Hypochile small, saccate, with 1 small gland on each lateral side. Epichile 2-lobed, lobes flat, at an acute angle to the axis, convergent, oblique-obovate, each 6- 8 mm long, 3.5- 4.5 mm wide. Column short, without frontal wings. Fruit erect elliptic capsule, 8- 12 mm long, 2- 3 mm wide. Fig. 41, l , m; 44, d.

Ecology. Wet primary and secondary closed forests, often with bamboo, on shale, usually along rocky stream slopes. 10 00- 1200 m . Fl. February - March. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Quang Tri ). Thailand , Hainan .

Studied specimens. Quang Tri, Huong Hoa, Sa Mui pass, HLF 5755a (HN, LE), HLF 6278 (HN, LE); d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0069/HLF6278 .

 

4. Z. nervosa (Wall. ex Lindl.) Benth. ex Clarke,

1889, Journ. Linn. Soc. London (Bot.) 25: 73; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 37 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 38; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 61. - Monochilus nervosum Wall. ex Lindl. 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. : 487.

Described from E. India (" India orientali"). Type (" Wallich, 7381 ") - K?

Terrestrial herb. Stem 10- 25 cm tall with 3-5 leaves. Leaves petiolate; petiole and sheath 0.5- 1.5 cm long; leaf blade ovate to narrowly-ovate, 2- 6 cm long, pure dull green, often with wide median whitish stripe, acute. Scape and rachis sparsely pubescent, rachis 1- 6 cm long, with 3-14 laxy flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, 5- 10 mm long. Ovary sparsely hairy, 5- 10 mm long. Sepals dull greenish to greenish-brown, sub-similar, ovate, 3.5- 5.5 mm long, concave, obtuse. Petals of the same length, white, oblique, broadly lunate, attenuate at the apex. Lip white, with 2 dull green to brown spots on epichile, 4.5- 6 mm long. Hypochile saccate, with (1)2-3 close parallel fat calluses on each lateral side. Epichile 2-lobed, lobes spreading, rectangular to obovate. Column short, with 2 large rectangular to triangular acute wings at front. Fruit erect elliptic capsule, 9- 12 mm long, 3.5- 4.5 mm wide. Fig. 41, n, o; 44, e.

Ecology. Wet primary and secondary closed forests, often with bamboo, on any soils. 2 00- 1500 m . Fl. January - April. Not rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces). Bhutan , Nepal , India , S. China, Thailand , Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan , Philippines .

Studied specimens. Cuc Phuong national park, NTH 3890 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Hoang Su Phi, HAL 6619 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, DKH 5008 (HN, LE, MO); Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong national park, LX-VN 1810 (HN, LE); Ha Tinh, Huong Son, HAL 5215a (HN, LE); Hoa Binh , Da Bac, HAL 393 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2001 (HN, LE); Nghe An, Quy Chau, HLF 3095 (HN, LE); Nghe An, Tuong Duong, HLF 6602 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 5868 (HN, LE); Son La, Moc Chau, DKH 7357 (HN, LE, MO); Son La, Yen Chau, DKH 7225 (HN, LE, MO); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 181 (HN, LE).

Note. Widespread and common species in Vietnam , which easily survives in wet secondary forests, particularly with bamboo.

 

5. Z. parvifolia (Ridl.) Seidenf.,

1978, Dansk Bot. Ark. 32, 2: 82; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 37 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 37; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 61. - Hetaeria parvifolia Ridl. 1903, Journ. Straits Branch Roy . As. Soc. 39: 87. - Zeuxine tonkinensis Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 2. s. 3, 7: 328.

Described from Malacca Peninsula ("Penins. Mal." - sec. Ind.Kew.). Type (" Ridley s.n. ") - K.

Terrestrial herb. Stem 10- 30 cm tall with 3-5 leaves. Leaves shortly petiolate, ovate to narrowly-ovate, 1.5- 4.5 cm long, uniform dull green, or sometimes with median whitish stripe, acute. Scape and rachis sparsely pubescent, rachis 1- 8 cm long, few- to many flowered. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, sparsely pubescent to glabrous, 5- 10 mm long. Ovary sparsely pubescent or glabrous, 4- 8 mm long. Sepals light greenish-brown, sub-similar, ovate to narrowly-ovate, 3- 4.5 mm long, concave, obtuse. Petals of the same length, white, oblique-oblong, roundish at the apex. Lip 3- 4 mm long, white, with yellowish to yellowish-brown spot on epichile. Hypochile saccate, with 1 small gland on each lateral side. Epichile 2-lobed, lobes spreading, rectangular, about twice as long as wide. Column short, with 2 narrow insignificant wings at front. Fig. 41, p; 44, f .

Ecology. Wet primary and secondary closed forests, often with bamboo, on any soils. 3 00- 1800 m . Fl. December - April. Not rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces). Myanmar , Thailand , Laos , Cambodia , Malacca Peninsula , Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan , Philippines .

Studied specimens. Bavi mt, Tonkin, Balansa 2002 (P); Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5503a (HN, LE); Gia Lai Kontum, Chu Pa , LX-VN 2531 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Hoang Su Phi, HAL 6620 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh prov., Da Bac, HAL 556 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 2281 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Dalat, VH 2523 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Bi Dup mt, VH 3236 (HN, LE); Lang Son, Bac Son, HAL 6790 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2265 (HN, LE), DKH 6740 (HN, LE, MO); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 3310a (HN, LE); Thua Thien Hue, Nam Dong, HAL 6896b (HN, LE).

Note. Widespread and common species in Vietnam , which easily survives in wet secondary forests, particularly with bamboo.

Fig. 41. Rhomboda lanceolata: a flower and floral bract; Vrydagzynea formosana: b flattened
flower and longitudinal section of spur; Zeuxine strateumatica: c flowering plant, d flower, e
flattened sepals and petals, f column and lip, side view; Z. goodyeroides: g flowering plant,
h flattened tepals and lip, i column, frontal fiew, j anther, ventral view, k ovary and floral bract;
Z. grandis: l flattened tepals and lip, m column, frontal view; Z. nervosa: n flattened tepals
and lip, o column, side and frontal views; Z. parvifolia: p column, flattened tepals and lip.

 

6. Z. flava (Wall. ex Lindl.) Trimen,

1885, Syst. Cat. Fl. Pl. Ceylon : 90. Monochilus flavus Wall. ex Lindl., 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. : 487.

Described from Nepal . Type ( Wallich, Wall. Cat. 7380A ) K.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb. Stem 15- 45 cm tall with 5-8 leaves. Leaves petiolate; ovate to narrowly-ovate, 4- 8 cm long, uniform light green, acute. Scape and rachis pubescent, rachis to 22 cm long, many flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, sparsely pubescent, 5- 11 mm long. Ovary sparsely pubescent to sub-glabrous, 6- 10 mm long. Flowers odorless. Sepals dull greenish-brown, sub-similar, ovate to narrowly-ovate, 3.5- 4 mm long, concave, obtuse, sparsely pubescent to glabrous, lateral sepals shorter. Petals of the same length, light greenish, oblique narrowly-obovate to oblong-lanceolate, obtuse. Lip yellow, 2- 3 mm long. Hypochile saccate, with 1 small gland on each lateral side. Epichile 2-lobed, lobes spreading, oblong-obovate, 0.8- 1.2 mm long. Column short, with 2 narrow, fat, insignificant wings at front. Fruit erect elliptic capsule, 6- 9 mm long, 2- 3 mm wide. Fig. 42, a , b; 44, g .

Ecology. Wet primary and secondary closed forests, often with bamboo, on any soils. 5 00- 1500 m . Fl. February - April. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Ninh Thuan, Quang Tri, Son La ). Bhutan , Nepal , N. India, Myanmar , Thailand .

Studied specimens. Ninh Thuan, Ninh Hai, Nui Chua mt, HLF 4445 (HN, LE), HLF 4538 (HN, LE); Quang Tri, Huong Hoa, Sa Mui pass, HLF 5939 (HN, LE); Son La, Moc Chau, DKH 7515 (HN, LE, MO).

 

Zeuxinella Aver.,

in Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 96.

Type: Z. vietnamica (Aver.) Aver. ( Zeuxine vietnamica Aver.).

Terrestrial creeping sympodial herb with succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, short ascending leafy stem and erect thin terminal leafless inflorescence 10- 18 cm tall. Leaves 3-5, petiolate. Petiole and sheath 0.5-1 cm long. Leaf blade velvety carbon-black above, pale dull purple below, broadly ovate to orbicular, 1.5-3 cm long, shortly apiculate. Scape hairy, with 3-4 acuminate bracts; rachis pubescent, 1-4 cm long, with 3-8 laxy sessile flowers. Floral bracts pubescent, cuneate, acuminate, 4-6 by 1- 1.5 mm . Ovary densely glandular hairy, 5- 7 mm long. Flowers hardly opening, odorless, resupinate, 3- 5.5 mm long. Sepals dull greenish to greenish-brown, sub-similar, narrowly-ovate to ovate, 3-5 mm long, concave, obtuse. Petals white, narrowly ovate, incurved, 3-5 mm long, connivent to dorsal sepal forming hood. Lip yellow, spurred, fleshy, 3-lobed, 3 mm long. Hypochile boat-shaped; sidelobes narrowly ovate, rising and incurved. Epichile reflexed, 3-lobulate, with rounded-triangular sub-equal lobules, with 4 cushions on the disk. Spur straight, sac-like, 2.5-3 by 2 mm , with 1 cylindric gland on each lateral side. Column small, with 2 insignificant frontal wings, 2 narrow rostellar arms and 2 stigmas. Fig. 42, c-h; 44, h.

Monotype genus endemic to northern Vietnam .

 

Z. vietnamica (Aver.) Aver .,

2003, in Aver. et Averyanova, Updated Checkl. Orch. Vietnam : 61, 96, fig. 11. - Zeuxine vietnamica Aver., 1988, Bot. Journ. ( Leningrad ) 73, 3: 424; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 38.

Described from northern Vietnam ("Prov. Ha Nam Ninh. Cuc Phuong, May bac"). Type ("2 May 1985 LX-VN 1809/52 ") HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Ecology. P rimary and secondary broad-leaved forests, often with bamboo, on rocky limestone. 5 0- 400 m . Fl. March - May. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan , Ninh Binh, Quang Ninh ).

Studied specimens. Bac Kan , Ba Be national park, HLF 638 (HN, LE); Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong, NTH 3891 (HN, LE); Quang Ninh, Ha Long Bay, NTH 5649 (HN, LE).

Notes. Very rare relictual element of lowland indigenous limestone floras of northern Vietnam . The only representative of monotypic strictly endemic genus that is one of the best examples of strict endemism at the genus level. Needs special attention for protection.

 

Subtrib. 3.2.2. Spiranthinae Lindl.

1840, Gen.Sp.Orch.Pl. : 441, 462 (sub "Spiranthidae").

Type: Spiranthes Rich.

28(1) genera and 275(1) species. Tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of all continents except Africa, with highest diversity in tropical America .

 

Spiranthes Rich.,

1817, Orch. Europ. Annot.: 20, nom. conserv.

Type: S. spiralis (L.) K. Koch ( Ophrys spiralis L.), type conserv.

Terrestrial herbs with few fleshy fasciculate root tuberoids, rosulate sessile conduplicate leaves and erect inflorescence bearing terminal many-flowered, secund, spirally twisted, dense spike. Flowers sessile, resupinate, not widely opening. Sepals free, sub-similar; median sepal erect, lateral sepals spreading, oblique at the base. Petals connivent to sepal forming hood. Lip sessile or shortly claved, entire or lobed, undulate along margin, enveloping column at the base. Column short, erect, with bifid rostellum and 1 convex, entire stigma at front; clinandrium with prominent margins. Anther erect, dorsal. Pollinia 2, mealy, with caudicle and viscidium.

40(1) species. Tropical, subtropical and temperate areas of the world except tropical and southern Africa .

Fig. 42. Zeuxine flava: a flattened tepals and lip, b column, frontal view; Zeuxinella
vietnamica: c flowering plant, d ovary, floral bract and flower, e flattened tepals and lip,
f lip, side view, g gland inside spur, h column, view from above (with removed operculum)
and frontal view; Spiranthes sinensis: i flowering plants, j flower, k flattened tepals and
lip, l flattened median sepal and petals, m flattened lip, n ovary, column and lip, side view,
o column, side view, p column, view from above and frontal view, q fruit, r floral bract.

 

1. S. sinensis (Pers.) Ames ,

1908, Orch. 2: 53; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 25 ; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 48; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 56. - Neottia sinensis Pers., 1807, Syn. Pl. 2: 511. - Aristotelea spiralis Lour., 1790, Fl. Cochinchin.: 522. - Neottia australis R.Br., 1810, Prodr.: 319. N. amoena M. Bieb., 1819, Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 3: 606. - Spiranthes australis (R.Br.) Lindl., 1824, Bot. Reg. 10: tab. 823 . S. amoena (M.Bieb.) Spreng., 1826, Syst. Veg. 3: 708. S. spiralis (Lour.) Makino, 1926, Journ. Jap. Bot. 3: 25, nom. illeg.

Described from southern China ("prope Gantonem Sinarum"). Type ( Loureiro s.n .)- P.

Herb 8- 40 cm tall with 3-10, linear-lanceolate to broadly-lanceolate, glossy green, acute leaves, 2- 12 cm long, 3- 8 mm wide. Scape glandular hairy, with 2-4 bracts. Rachis 4- 14 cm . Floral bracts lanceolate, acuminate, glandular hairy, 4- 7 mm long. Ovary 2- 4 mm long. Flowers pink-purple to white. Sepals and petals sub-similar, narrowly ovate to lanceolate, 3- 4 mm long, 1- 1.5 mm wide, obtuse, petals slightly smaller. Lip simple, oblong, longitudinally concave, 3.5- 4.5 mm long, 2- 3 mm wide, plicate along margin, with 2 large spherical glands at the base. Column 2- 3 mm tall, with 2 erect, acute rostellar arms. Fruit ovate, glandular pubescent capsule, 6- 7 mm long, 3 mm broad. Fig. 42, i-r; 44, i.

Ecology. Secondary short-tall grasslands, pastures, road-cuts, old rice field in agricultural areas, open grassy swamps along stream and river valleys, usually on wet alluvial soils. 5- 2000 m . Fl. February - April . Very common (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces). Widespread in temperate, subtropical and tropical Asia to Australia , New Zeeland, Tasmania and south-west Pacific Islands .

Studied specimens. Annam, sine loc., Eberhardt s.n. (P); Bac Kan, Ngan Son, CBL 1258 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Bao Lac, CBL 1373 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Nguyen Binh, CBL 131 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Tien Ha, sine coll. (P); Cochimchina s.n., Loureiro (P); Dalat, Boden Kloss, s.n. (BM); Ha Giang, Bac Me, HAL 6607 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Dong Van, CBL 1772 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quang Ba, DKH 4832 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Yen Minh, CBL 1979 (HN); Hanoi, Bat Bac, Balansa ; Hanoi, Kien Khe, Bon ; Hoa Binh , Da Bac, HAL 285 (HN); Hoa Binh , Da Bac, HAL 554 (HN); Ja Lao Mahay, Pierre, s.n. (P); Kon Tum, Kon Plong, DKH 4750 (HN, LE); Kontum, Kon Plong, Mang La, VH 5456 (HN); Kontum, Ngoc Linh mt., VH 10 (HN, LE); Lac Duong, Langbian, sine coll.; Lang Son, Bac Son, HAL 6791 (HN, LE); Langbian, Andre ; Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2448 (HN); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2845 (HN, LE); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong national park, 20 Feb. 1971, Quynh 41, CPNP 5120 (HN); Pagode de Bamly, Tonkin, Petelot ; Quang Yen, d'Alleizette ; Santay, Balansa ; Son La, Moc Chau, DKH 7449 (HN); Thai Nguyen, Eberhardt ; Tonkin delta, Eberhard drawing, 218 ; Tonkin, sine loc., Bon ; Tu Phap, Balansa .

Note. Very common, variable and widespread weedy species, often spreading into secondary habitats on agricultural lands. Used in traditional oriental medicine.

Fig. 43. Ludisia discolor: a (HLF 6570), b (HAL 6350), c (HAL 1340, HAL 1655 and HAL 5865);
Odontochilus saprophyticus: d (HAL 8194); O. elwesii: e (HAL 1720); O. umbrosus: f (HLF
5611a); O. inabai: g (HAL 9002); Orchipedum echinatum: h (HLF1296, type); Rhomboda
petelotii: i (NTH 3459).

Fig. 44. Rhomboda tokioi: a (LX-VN s.n., 1985); Vrydagzynea formosana: b (HAL 6148); Zeuxine
goodyeroides: c (HAL 10672); Z. grandis: d (HLF 6278); Z. nervosa: e (Averyanov, HAL
s.n., 2004); Z. parvifolia: f (HAL 6620). Z. flava: g (HLF 5939); Zeuxinella vietnamica: h (HLF
638); Spiranthes sinensis: i (HAL 11131a).

 

...

 

 

Leonid Averyanov

.

 

L.Averyanov

..

THE ORCHIDS OF VIETNAM

ILLUSTRATED SURVEY