-

 

SUBFAMILY CYPRIPEDIOIDEAE LINDL.

 

1821, Collect. Bot. Cypripedieae (sub "Cypripedieae"). - Fam. Cypripediaceae Lindl., 1833, Nixus Pl. : 22 (sub "Cypripedieae").

Type: Cypripedium L.

5(1) genera and about 125(18) species. Subtropical and tropical areas of the world (except Africa ).

 

Paphiopedilum Pfitz.,

1886, Morph. Stud. Orch.: 11; Stein, 1892, Orchideenbuch: 448-492; Seidenf., 1972, Bot. Tidsskr. 67, 1-2: 76-95; Chen et Liu, 1982, Acta Bot. Yunnan . 4, 2: 163-167; Braem, 1988, Paphiopedilum: 1-249, Cribb, 1998, Gen. Paphiopedilum: 1-427; Averyanov et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 1-288, nom. conserv.

Type: P. insigne (Wall. ex Lindl.) Pfitz. ( Cypripedium insigne Wall. ex Lindl.).

Sympodial terrestrial, lithophytic or epiphytic herbs with thick hairy roots at the base of very short stem. Leaves few, rosulate, distichous, conduplicate, often tessellated with deep and light green mottles. Inflorescence sub-terminal, one- to few-flowered raceme on long stalk. Flowers large, resupinate, variously colored, pubescent outside. Lateral sepals connate into synsepalum. Lip inflated, sac-like, slipper-shaped. Column short, curved downwards into lip opening, dorsally with large shield-like staminode, 2 lateral fertile stamens and hemispheric stigma ending short style. Pollen not aggregated into pollinia, gel-like, sticky.

About 75(18) species. Tropical Asia to Philippines and islands of west Pacific.

 

Key to species

 

1. Lip inflated, sub-spherical to ovoid, calceolate with involuted upper apical margin; dorsal sepal and synsepal more or less similar to petals in color and shape, white, yellowish, dull yellow-greenish or pink, more or less of one color; petals broadly-ovate to circular, less than twice as long as broad, very rarely petals narrowly-ovate (in this case petals and lip hooked at apex) . . . . . . . . . . 2

-. Lip goblet-like, cylindrical, with incurved side-lobes and apical margin of the pouch straight, not involuted; dorsal sepal and synsepal distinctly differ from petals in color and shape, petals much narrower than dorsal sepal, dorsal sepal and petals commonly variously colored, often contrastly striped and spotted; petals tapering, narrowly-oblong or spathulate, more than twice as long as broad, newer hooked at the apex . . . . . . . . . . 8

 

2. Dorsal sepal and synsepal distinctly smaller than lateral petals; lip inflated, more or less spherical, thin-textured, lightly grooved along the veins; staminode large, broad at apex, flat or longitudinally conduplicate, sometimes with involute side margins; flowers white, pale yellowish-green or pink, sometimes with brown or purple stripes along nerves; leaves tessellated or uniformly green; plant of calcareous or acidic silicate substrates . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

-. Dorsal sepal and synsepal more or less similar with petals size; lip is ovoid, rather thick in texture, plain on surface; staminode middle sized, distinctly 3- or 5-dentate at the apex, with a large narrow central tooth; flowers pale yellowish-white to yellow, sepals and petals usually with small purple spots; leaves markedly tessellated; plant of calcareous substrates . . . . . . . . . . 7. P. concolor

 

3. Leaves distinctly tessellated above and heavily spotted or uniformly tinged with dirty-purple-violet beneath, 10-15(20) cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide; flowers pink, pink-purple or pale green; lip longer or hardly shorter than lateral petals; underground stolons may be present or not; plants of calcareous or acidic silicate substrates . . . . . . . . 4

-. Leaves uniformly green on both sides, rare with few small purple-violet marks beneath near the base, (15)20- 35 cm long, 4- 6 cm wide; flowers white or pale yellowish-green; lip distinctly smaller than lateral petals; plants of calcareous substrates, never developing stolons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

 

4. Staminode flat, with a broad apex; sepals and petals uniformly light pink to pink-purple; plants of calcareous or acidic silicate substrates, without stolons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

-. Staminode longitudinally conduplicate or with deep fold along midvein at the apex; sepals apple-green or yellowish-pink with purple stripes along veins; plants of calcareous substrates, with more or less elongate underground stolons . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

 

5. Flowers 7.5-10 cm across; sepals less than 4.5 cm long, subcircular to broadly-ovate, spreading; staminode with bright yellow center and central purple mark; leaves narrowly-oblong to oblong, 8- 11 cm long, 3-3.5(4) cm wide, tessellated more or less contrastingly deep-green/whitish-green; plant of acidic silicate substrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. P. delenatii

-. Flowers 10- 12 cm across; sepals longer than 4.5 cm , broadly-oblong to broadly-ovate, down directed; staminode with dull yellow or light olive-green center; leaves ovate to oblong-elliptic, (8)11- 20 cm long, (2.5)4- 7 cm wide, tessellated glossy deep-green/silver-gray; plant of calcareous substrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. P. vietnamense

 

6. Flowers (8)9- 12.2 cm across, pale yellowish-green to apple-green, dorsal sepal and petals with brown-purple stripes; dorsal sepal cuspidate-acuminate at apex, more than 4 cm long; petals ovate to narrowly-ovate, subacute at apex, longer than 4 cm; staminode more than 12.5 mm long, broadly ovate, convex at the base, apically with a deep fold along the midvein and involute side margins . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. P. malipoense

-. Flowers 6-8(8.7)cm across, pink to pink-purple dorsal sepal and petals with purple striped along veins; dorsal sepal obtuse or shortly acute at apex, less than 4 cm long; petals broadly obovate to subcircular, rounded at apex, less than 4 cm long; staminode less than 12.5 mm long, elliptic, longitudinally conduplicate . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. P. micranthum

 

7(3). Flowers commonly subcampanulate, sepals and petals light yellowish-green with purple-brown flushing at the base; lip yellowish-white; staminode broadly triangular, more than 17 mm wide, convex, broadly-rounded at apex, white or yellowish-white with purple anastomosing markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. P. hangianum

-. Flower commonly spreading, sepals and petals white, sometimes faintly flushed with purple at base; lip yellow to pink-orange, with a pink flush around the rim; staminode narrowly-triangular, less than 12 mm wide, longitudinally sulcate, with a deep groove along midvein and narrow apex, bright yellow with reddish markings and a white margin . . . . . . . . . . . 6. P. emersonii

 

8(1). Inflorescence one-flowered, very rarely with 2 flowers; petals narrowly-obovate to oblong-spathulate, more or less flat, undulate at margin but never spirally twisted, less than 8(8.5) cm long; medium-sized or small plants with more or less herbaceous leaves commonly less than 20 cm long, very rarely longer . . . . . . . . . . 9

-. Inflorescence with (1)2-5 flowers; petals linear-tapering, strongly spirally twisted, much narrower than median sepal, 8- 11 cm long; large plants with coriaceous leaves 20- 50 cm long, 2- 5 cm wide . . . . . . . 18. P. dianthum

 

9. Leaves uniformly green, sometimes with deep green venation; often with purple-violet marks beneath near the base; staminode obovate, obcordate, subcircular or subquadrate with a central umbo or broad convex callus; petals without maroon-violet warts; lip with plain smooth surface of side-lobes (P. sect. Paphiopedilum) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

-. Leaves distinctly tessellated deep-green/light-green, without purple-violet marks beneath; staminode commonly lunate, with falcate side-lobes and a small central tooth, rare broadly obcordate, 3- or 5-dentate at the apex, without distinct central boss; petals with more or less prominent small maroon-violet warts along margin and near the base; lip with warted surface of side-lobes . . . . . . . . 16

 

10. Staminode subquadrate, smooth, glossy, with a broad central swelling, lacking a glossy umbo; petals purple in apical half . . . . . . . . . . . 8. P. hirsutissimum

-. Staminode obovate, obcordate or semicircular, rugulose, with a central glossy umbo; petals orange, yellow, yellow with a pink tint, yellowish-brown or light brown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

 

11. Flowers small or medium-sized, less than 6.5 cm across; dorsal sepal shorter than 4 cm; petals less than 4 cm long . . . . . . . . . . 12

-. Flowers large, more than (7) 7.5 cm across; dorsal sepal longer than 4.5 cm ; petals more than 4.5 cm long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

 

12. Plants small with coriaceous, rigid, semi-succulent leaves 3-7 (12) cm long; flowers bright yellow to dull yellowish-pink with an ochre-yellow to dull yellowish-pink lip; petals with straight margins, commonly ochre-yellow with orange veins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. P. helenae

-. Plants medium-sized with more or less herbaceous leaves more than 7 cm long; flowers not colored as above; petals with more or less undulate margins, light yellowish-brown or dull yellowish with a pink tint or brown veins . . . . . . . . . . 13

 

13. Petals oblong, with strongly undulate margins, light yellowish-green with chocolate-brown veins and flushing; lip chocolate-brown with darker veins; dorsal sepal white with a greenish base and chocolate-brown veins towards the base . . . . . . . . 10. P. tranlienianum

-. Petals spathulate or narrowly obovate, with slightly undulate margins, light yellow-brown or dull yellowish with pink tint and large maroon spots; lip pink-purple or purple-brown; dorsal sepal white with a purple center or dull yellowish with maroon spots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

 

14. Dorsal sepal subcircular to obovate, with reflexed margins at the base, white with a purple or brownish-purple center; petals narrowly-spathulate, 0.8-1 cm wide, dull yellowish-brown with pink-purple tint; lip yellowish-brown to purple-brown . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. P. barbigerum

-. Dorsal sepal broadly-ovate to ovate, more or less flat, with flat margins at the base, light dull yellowish-green, heavily spotted with large maroon spots; petals broadly-oblong to narrowly-obovate 1.4- 1.6 cm wide, dull yellowish, flushed with pink-purple, spotted with numerous large maroon spots; lip pink-purple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. P. henryanum

 

15(11). Dorsal sepal 4.8- 5.2 cm long, white, sometimes with light brownish or green at the base, more or less heavily spotted with brown-purple; petals spathulate, usually less than 5.5 cm long, 1.8-2.5 cm wide; peduncle commonly erect, shortly densely hairy with short purple-violet hairs; lithophytic plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. P. gratrixianum

-. Dorsal sepal (4.5) 5- 7 cm long, greenish with a white margin and glossy maroon central area, rare maroon spotted; petals obovate-spathulate, usually more than 5.5 cm long, 2.5- 4.6 cm wide; peduncle commonly arching, densely villosely hairy with long whitish hairs; epiphytic plant, very rare a lithophyte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. P. villosum

 

16(9). Dorsal sepal pale green with darker venation, forming a hood arching over the lip; staminode broadly cordate with 1-3 obtuse apical teeth or lunate with broad falcate side-lobes, 3- or 5-denticulate at the apex; petals spathulate, broadening toward apex; lip often with 2-6 obtuse teeth on front margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. P. appletonianum

-. Dorsal sepal erect, more or less flat, with reflexed margins at the base, white with purple or green veins; staminode lunate with narrow falcate side-lobes and 1-3 small median teeth; petals oblong, sigmoid or elliptic; lip front margin without obtuse teeth . . . . . . . . . 17

 

17. Petals more or less sigmoid, down-curved, green with a pink-purple apex and prominent deep maroon hairy warts along the upper margin; dorsal sepal subcircular to broadly-elliptic, white, green/purple striped; lip pink-brown to dull purple; leaves commonly elliptic to obovate, 10- 20 cm long . . . . . . . . . 16. P. callosum

-. Petals elliptic, horizontally spreading, deep-purple, finely purple-violet spotted in lower part, without hairy warts along the upper margin; dorsal sepal broadly-ovate, white, deep-purple striped; lip brown-purple to deep purple-violet; leaves commonly oblong to elliptic, 7- 14 cm long . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. P. purpuratum

 

1. P. delenatii Guillaum.,

1924, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 71: 554, 558; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 16; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 16; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 48; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 89. - Cypripedium delenatii (Guillaum.) C.H.Curtis, 1931, Gard. Chron. Ser. 3, 89: 208.

Described from Vietnam (" Tonkin : Sans localite precise. ...; Annam : Nha trang). Lectotype ( Tonkin , Delenat, cult. Mornay , Fleuriste de la ville de Paris") - P.

Lithophytic or terrestrial herb with 5-7 oblong-elliptic leaves up to 11 by 3- 3.9 cm , distinctly tessellated, heavily purple-spotted below. Peduncle with 1-2(3) flowers, purple-spotted, up to 22 cm long; pedicel and ovary up to 5.5 cm long, spotted with purple, white hairy. Flower 7.5- 8 cm across, pale pink with pink or purple-pink lip. Median sepal ovate, 1.7-3.5 by 1.8-2.5 cm. Synsepal similar, 1.9-3 by 1.4- 2.9 cm . Petals broadly elliptic, obtuse, 3-4.2 by 2.4- 3.8 cm . Lip ellipsoidal to subglobose, 2.5-3.8 by 2.5-3 cm. Staminode convex, ovate, 14-17 by 13- 16 mm with red and yellow markings. Fig. 16 , a-c; 23, a .

Ecology. Shady, broad-leaved, evergreen lowland and submontane forests on granite and gneiss 750- 1300 m . Fl. November, December. Very rare (CR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dac Lac, Khanh Hoa). Endemic.

Studied specimens. Khanh Hoa, Lieng Ly River, L.Averyanov et al., s.n ., Apr. 1995 and Dec. 1995 (HN); Khanh Hoa, Khanh Son, Hon Giao mt., VH 4304 (HN); Lam Dong, Dalat area, Averyanov s.n., a.2005 (LE - photo).

Notes. Local endemic with range area less than 100 square km., closely allied to calcium dependent Paphiopedilum armeniacum and P. vietnamense . Flowers commonly vary from light pink to pink with purple lip. Individual plants in some populations have white or nearly white flowers.

 

2. P. vietnamense Gruss et Perner,

1999 (11 Jan.), Die Orchidee Beihefte 5: 3; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 96 . P. hilmari Senghas et Schettler, 1999 (19 Jan.), Journ. Orchideenfr. 6, 1: 4. P. mirabile Cavestro et Chiron, 1999 (19 Feb.), Orch. Cult. Protect., 32, 2: 32.

Described from northern Vietnam , Thai Nguyen province (" Cao Bang Province , 1000 m exactly wrong). Type ( fl. in cult. November 1998, Dec. 1998, O. Gruss ) K.

Lithophytic or terrestrial herb with 3-5 glossy, oblong-elliptic leaves 8-17(20) by 2.5- 7 cm , distinctly tessellated, spotted or flushed with purple beneath. Peduncle erect, 1(2)-flowered, 15- 25 cm long, purple-violet to purple-brown, white hairy. Flower 10- 12 cm wide, pink to purple; lip commonly deep purple on front or around rim. Pedicel and ovary 2.5- 2.8 cm long, fine purple spotted. Median sepal erect, elliptic-obovate, 4.2-5.1 by 2.5-3 cm. Synsepal elliptic-ovate, 3-4.6 by 3- 3.3 cm . Petals deflexed or spreading, oblong-elliptic, 5-6 by 3.3- 4.5 cm . Lip subglobose, 3.5-4 cm across. Staminode large, convex, broadly rhombic, lemon-yellow with white margin and olive-green center. Fig. 16, d, e; 23, b.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen humid forests on rocky crystalline limestone 350- 550 m . Fl. March. Extinct in nature (EW).

Distribution. Vietnam (Thai Nguyen). Endemic.

Studied specimens. Thai Nguyen, Dong Hy, HAL 31 (HN).

Notes. Bright example of restricted local endemic completely depleted in nature by commercial collectors. All known specimens originate from alone miserable area in Thai Nguyen province. The species presently known only in cultivation is quite variable in both coloration and shape of its flowers.

 

3. P. malipoense S.C. Chen et Z.H. Tsi,

1984, Acta Phytotax. Sin., 22, 2: 119; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 16; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 104 .

Described from S.China ( Yunnan : Malipo, Hwang Jin In, 1300- 1600 m ). Type (" Nov. 11 1947 , K.M.Feng, 13161 ") - PE.

Distribution. N.Vietnam, S.China, NE.Laos.

 

Key to varieties

 

1. Petals broadly obovate to obovate; lip wider than petals, 3.8- 5.4 cm wide; staminode with deep brown-purple or maroon apex; leaves heavily spotted with purple-violet beneath . . . . . . . 3a. P. malipoense var. malipoense

-. Petals obovate to narrowly obovate or lanceolate; lip of equal width or narrower than petals, usually less than 3.8 cm wide; staminode with white, light yellowish or light greenish apex marked with finest brown-purple marks; leaves sparsely spotted with purple-violet beneath . . . . . . 2.

 

2. Petals obovate to narrowly obovate; lip subglobose, more than 1.8 cm wide, truncate at the apex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3b. P. malipoense var. jackii

-. Petals narrowly obovate to lanceolate; lip narrowly ovate, slightly bilaterally compressed, hooked at apex . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3c. P. malipoense var. hiepii

 

3a. P. malipoense var. malipoense.

Lithophytic or terrestrial herb with creeping rhizome and 4-6 coriaceous oblong leaves 10-16(20) by 2.5-5(7) cm, distinctly tessellated, heavy purple-marked below. Peduncle 30- 65 cm tall, 1(2)-flowered, purple-brown spotted, white hairy. Flower 8- 12.2 cm across, apple fragrant, light green with brown striped tepals. Pedicel and ovary about 4 cm long, white hairy. Tepals brown striped. Dorsal sepal ovate, 4.4-7.1 by 1.8- 4.5 cm . Synsepal ovate, 3.8-5.3 by 2.4- 4.8 cm . Petals ovate, 4-7.1 by 3.4- 5.1 cm . Lip pale yellow-green to greyish, subglobose, 4- 6.5 cm across. Staminode convex, ovate-oblong, 1.3-1.4 by 1.1- 1.3 cm wide, pure white, with truncate deep maroon-brown apex. Fig. 16, f-h; 23, c.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen and coniferous humid forests on rocky crystalline limestone. 400- 1450 m . Fl. March, April. Occasional (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan , Ha Giang, Hoa Binh , Lang Son, Quang Binh, Son La, Thanh Hoa, Tuyen Quang ). S.China, NE.Laos.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Na Ri, NTH 3705 (LE), DKH 7554 (HN, LE, MO); Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4857 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Meo Vac, HAL 8498 (HN); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, HG 52 ( HN, LE), NTH 3580 (HN, LE), DKH 4805 (HN, LE), HAL 8338 (HN), HAL 8377 (HN); Hoa Binh , Da Bac, HAL 350 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh , Mai Chau , HAL 703 (HN, LE), HAL 832 (HN, LE), HAL 871 (HN, LE), N.T.Hiep et al., sine no (HN, LE), NTH 2040 (HN, LE), VH 2413 (HN, LE), DKH 7707 (HN, LE, MO), DKH 7992 (HN, LE, MO), DKH 7799 (HN, LE, MO), DKH 8058 (HN, LE, MO); Lang Son, Huu Lung, NTH 3258 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6117 (HN), HAL 6207 (HN); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, VH 4759 (HN, LE), HAL 5839 (HN), HAL 5967 (HN, LE), HAL 6039 (HN); Son La, Moc Chau, DKH 7418 (HN, LE), HAL 9296 (HN, LE); Son La, Yen Chau, HAL 9434 (HN, LE), HAL 9505 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 974 (HN, LE), HAL 1047 (HN, LE), HAL 3287 (HN), HAL 3438 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Quan Hoa, HAL 3934 (HN), HAL 3935 (HN); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 245 (HN); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 11688 (HN), HAL 11735 (HN).

Notes. Very sensitive species, which dies out very fast under deforestation. It is quite variable both in coloration and in shape of its flowers. Albino forms and forms with more deep coloration time to time are recognizing in imported materials.

 

3b. P. malipoense var. jackii (H.S.Hua) Aver.,

1997, Orchids 66, 2: 153. P. jackii H.S.Hua, 1996, Die Orchidee 46, 3: U4.

Described from S. China ( Yunnan , Wenshan ) - questionable. Type ( 12 March 1995, S.S.Hu 3268 A-S ) - IBSC.

Lithophytic or terrestrial herb. Leaves light green, lightly tessellated and veined dark green above, light green and sparsely spotted with purple-violet beneath. Flowers differ from the typical variety in having narrower petals, a smaller yellowish-green or green lip and a white staminode, usually with a yellow, yellow-green or green central mark with fine purple venation. Fig. 23, d.

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen dry, rather open forests on stratified soft limestone. 550- 650 m . Fl. March, April. Very rare (EN).

Distribution . Vietnam (Tuyen Quang), S. China ?

Studied specimens. Tuyen Quang, N.T.Hiep sine n, a.1995 (LE); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 169 (HN, LE), HLF 661 (HN, LE).

Notes. Flowers are remarkably variable in the form of petals and coloration of staminode, which may be pure white, yellowish or yellow-green with fine purple venation and marks. In fact, the variety is credibly known only from small area in northern Vietnam in Tuyen Quang province. Reports of this species from China may be based on imported plants originated from this area.

Fig. 16. Paphiopedilum delenatii: a flowering plant and flower, b, c staminode; P. vietnamense:
d flowering plant, e staminode. P. malipoense var. malipoense: f flowering
plant, g, h staminode (HAL 6207). P. malipoense var. hiepii: i flower, j lip, k, l staminode.

 

 

3c. P. malipoense var. hiepii (Aver.) P.J.Cribb,

1998, Genus Paphiopedilum: 88. P. hiepii Aver., 1998, Orchids 67, 3: 261. P. jackii H.S.Hua var. hiepii (Aver.) Koop. 2000, Orchid Digest 64, 4: 168. P. angustatum Z.J.Liu et S.C.Chen, 2000, Acta Phytotax. Sin., 38, 5: 464.

Described from N. Vietnam ( Prov. Tuyen Quang, Distr. Tuyen Quang ). Type ( 14-15 June 1995, N.T.Hiep s.n. ) - LE.

Terrestrial herb. Leaves nearly white with dark green venation above and sparse purple-violet spotting beneath. Flowers differ from the typical variety in narrow ovate or lanceolate petals hooked at the apex, a small narrow laterally compressed yellowish-green lip and a white staminode with few fine purple marks at apex. Fig. 16, i-l; 23, e.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen dry forests on soft slate limestone and schist. 500- 600 m . Fl. March, April. Extinct in nature (EW).

Distribution . Vietnam (Son La?, Tuyen Quang). S. China ?

Notes. Species is known only by type collection. Report from S.China may be based on imported plants originated from locus classicus area. Doubtful plants with similar coloration of leaves were occasionally observed in Son La province ( HAL 9555 ).

 

4. P. micranthum T.Tang et F.T.Wang,

1951, Acta Phytotax. Sin., 1, 1: 25, 56; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 17; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 120 .

Described from S. China ( Yunnan ). Type ( C.W.Wang 86182 ) - PE.

Lithophytic or terrestrial herb with creeping rhizome and 3-5 oblong rigid leaves 5-12(15) by 1.5-2 cm, distinctly tessellated, purple-violet spotted below. Peduncle erect, 1-flowered, 9- 25 cm long, purple-brown spotted, white hairy. Flower odorless, 5.8- 9 cm tall, thin-textured; tepals yellowish flushed with pink, veined with deep red-purple. Median sepal ovate, 1.5-3.6 by 1.7-3 cm. Synsepal elliptic, 1.4-3.3 by 1.1-2.5 cm. Petals broadly obovate, 1.9-4.3 by 2.3- 4.4 cm , ciliate with long white hairs. Lip white to pink-purple, deeply inflated, 5-10.4 by 3.4- 5.6 cm . Staminode white, yellow above, spotted with red, conduplicate, 10- 12.5 mm long. Pedicel and ovary 3.5- 4.6 cm long, brown-purple spotted, white hairy. Fig. 17, a-d; 23, f .

Ecology. Evergreen and semi-deciduous, mixed and coniferous forest on rocky limestone. 600- 1600 m . Fl. March, April. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan , Cao Bang , Ha Giang, Tuyen Quang). S. China .

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4771 (HN, LE), HAL 4794 (HN, LE), HAL 4864 (HN, LE), HLF 796 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Bao Lac, CBL 1477 (HN, LE), CBL 332 (HN); Cao Bang , Ha Lang, CBL 627 (HN, LE), CBL 767 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Nguyen Binh, CBL 555 (HN, LE), CBL 1277 (HN, LE), CBL 1577 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Tra Linh, CBL 1079 (HN, LE), CBL 1222/2 (LE); Cao Bang , Trung Khanh , HAL 5457 (HN), HAL 5643 (HN, LE), HAL 5685 (HN), HAL 5745 (HN); Ha Giang, Dong Van, CBL 1776 (HN, LE), NTH 3346 (HN, LE), HAL 8594 (HN), HAL 8615 (HN), HAL 8653 (HN), HAL 8689 (HN); Ha Giang, Meo Vac, CBL 1822 (HN, LE), NTH 3432 (HN, LE), HAL 8504 (HN), HAL 8564 (HN); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, NTH 3576 (HN, K, LE), DKH 6173 (HN, LE), HAL 8341 (HN); Ha Giang, Vi Xuyen, DKH 6451 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Yen Minh, CBL 1940 (HN, LE), NTH 3494 (HN, LE); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 147 (HN), HLF 659 (HN, LE).

Notes. Very sensitive species, which vanish very fast under deforestation. It is quite variable in coloration of leaves and flowers. Its populations occasionally include albino forms and forms with more deep flower coloration.

 

5. P. hangianum Perner et Gruss,

1999, Die Orchidee, Biehefte 6: 3; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 131 . P. singchii Z.J.Liu et J.Y.Zhang, 2001, Acta Phytotax. Sin., 38, 5: 468.

Described from N. Vietnam ( Bac Thai Province , Tong Ngoc Hang s.n . ). Type ( cult. Gruss HAL 072655 ) - HAL.

Lithophytic herb with 4-7 coriaceous, ligulate, glossy, green leaves (12)15-30 by 3- 5 cm . Peduncle erect, 1(2)-flowered, 6- 12 cm long, shortly white hairy. Pedicel and ovary 3.5- 4.2 cm long, bright green. Flower slightly sweetly fragrant, 9- 12 cm wide, rather thick-textured, light yellowish or pale yellowish-green. Median sepal ovate, 4-5.6 by 2.2- 3.9 cm . Synsepal broadly ovate, 3.5-6 by 3- 4.7 cm . Petals broadly elliptic, 4-7 by 2.5- 4.5 cm . Lip yellowish-white, ovoid, 3.3-5 by 2.3- 3.4 cm , Staminode broadly sagittate, white or yellowish-white with purple anastomosing markings, 1.1-1.7 by 1.1- 2.1 cm wide. Fig. 17, e, f; 23, g .

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen dry forests on soft stratified limestone. 450- 750 m . Fl. May, June. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan , Tuyen Quang). Endemic.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan , Cho Don, HAL 4789 (HN), HLF 806 (HN, LE); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 126 (HN, LE), HAL 192 (HN, LE).

Notes. Local endemic with very restricted distribution. There are few doubts that description of P. singchii reported from southern Yunnan is based on plants imported from Vietnam .

 

6. P. emersonii Koop. et P.J.Cribb,

1986, Orchid Advocate 12: 86; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 48; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 140 . P. huonglanae N.T.Tich, 1998, Hoa Canh (1998), 3: 10-11, nom. invalid. P. emersonii Koop. et P.J.Cribb var. huonglanae (N.T.Tich) N.T.Tich, 1998, Hoa Canh (1998), 4: 12, comb. invalid.

Described from China ( China ). Type ( cult. E.W.Charles ) - K.

Lithophytic herb with 4-7 coriaceous, ligulate, glossy green leaves, below with sparse purple-violet marks near the base. Peduncle erect, 1-flowered, 10- 15 cm long, yellowish-green, shortly white hairy. Pedicel and ovary about 3 cm long. Flower slightly sweet fragrant, 8- 10.5 cm wide, rather thick-textured. Median sepal ovate, 2.7-5.1 by 1.5- 3.5 cm . Synsepal broadly elliptic, 2-4.5 by 1.8-4 cm. Petals broadly obovate, 3.5-5.4 by 2-4 cm, white villose and sometimes faintly flushed with pink at base. Lip light yellow to dull orange-pink, obovoid, 3-5 by 2-3 cm. Staminode bright yellow with reddish markings, 1.6-2 by 0.8- 1.1 cm , deeply longitudinally sulcate. Fig. 17, g-i; 23, h.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen dry forests on rocky solid slaty limestone. 550- 750 m . Fl. May, June. Very rare (CR).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan , Thai Nguyen, Tuyen Quang). S. China .

Studied specimens. Bac Kan , Na Ri , HAL 4963 (HN), DKH 7644 (HN, LE, MO); Thai Nguyen, Dong Hy, HAL 031/1 (LE); Thai Nguyen, Vo Nhai, HAL 1581 (HN).

Notes. Variable species, particularly in size of flowers, petal shape and color of the lip.

 

7. P. concolor (Bateman) Pfitzer,

1889, in Engler et Prantl, Natur. Pflanzenf. 2, 6: 84; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 16; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 17; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 48; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 145 . - Cypripedium concolor Bateman, 1865, Curtis's Bot. Mag. 91: t. 5513.

Described from Myanmar ( Moulmein ). Type ( cult. Rucker, Parish s.n. ) K (holotype), W (isotype).

Lithophytic herb with 4-6 oblong leaves 8-16 by 2-4 cm, distinctly tessellated above, spotted with purple-violet below. Peduncle erect, 1-2(3) flowered, 5- 8 cm tall, pubescent, dirty-purple spotted. Flowers apple fragrant, 5- 7 cm across, white to yellow, finely sparsely spotted with purple. Pedicel and ovary 3- 5 cm long, white pubescent. Sepal, synsepal and petals sub-similar, ovate to oblong-ovate, 2-4.5 by 2-3 cm. Lip ellipsoidal to narrowly ovate, fleshy, 2.5-3.8 by 1- 1.8 cm . Staminode white with yellow center, finely purple marked, ovate, toothed to acute at apex, 1-1.3 by 1- 1.2 cm wide. Fig. 18, a-d; 23, i.

Ecology. Broad-leaved, evergreen forests and scrub on rocky limestone. 10- 600 m . Fl. March June. Not rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Bac Giang, Ha Nam, Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Hoa Binh , Lang Son, Nam Dinh, Ninh Binh, Quang Binh, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Son La, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Vinh Phuc), SE. Myanmar, S. China, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia?

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be, HAL 118 (HN, LE), HLF 615 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Cho Don, HLF 841 (HN, LE); Hai Phong, Cat Ba, LX-VN 3393/7 (HN, LE); LX-VN 3747 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh , Mai Chau , DKH 8178 (HN, LE, MO); Lang Son, Huu Lung, NTH 3259 (HN, K, LE); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong , NTH 5383 (HN), NMC 1600 (HN); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 5840 (HN), HAL 6037 (HN); Quang Ninh, Halong Bay, NTH 2631 (HN, LE); Quang Tri, Huong Hoa, HLF 5935 (HN); Son La, Moc Chau, NTH 2922 (HN, LE); Thanh Hoa, Quan Hoa, HAL 3705 (HN), HAL 3757 (HN).

Notes. Common lowland limestone species extinct in many places of its former occurrence. Color of flowers varies from yellowish-white to bright yellow. Occasional flowering sometimes observed in December.

Fig. 17. Paphiopedilum micranthum: a flowering plant, b-d staminode. P. hangianum: e
flowering plant, f staminode. P. emersonii: g flowering plant, h, i staminode.

8. P. hirsutissimum (Lindl. ex Hook.) Stein,

1892, Orchideenbuch: 470; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 19; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 19; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 156 . - Cypripedium hirsutissimum Lindl. ex Hook., 1857, Curtis's Bot. Mag. 83: t. 4990.

Described from NE. India ("East Indian Plants). Type ( cult. Parker ) K.

Distribution. NE. India, Myanmar , SW. China, N. Thailand, N. Laos, N. Vietnam .

 

Key to varieties

 

1. Flowers (10)12- 16 cm wide; petals (5)7- 8 cm long, in basal half strongly undulate on margins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8a. P. hirsutissimum var. esquirolei

-. Flowers 6-8(10) cm wide; petals (2.6)3-4(5) cm long, straight or hardly undulate on margins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8b. P. hirsutissimum var. chiwuanum

 

8a. P. hirsutissimum var. esquirolei (Schleichter) Karasawa et Saito,

1982, Bull. Hiroshima Bot. Gard. 5: 40; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 159 . P. esquirolei Schleichter, 1919, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 4: 39. P. saccopetalum Hua, 1998, Die Orchidee 49, 1: 38, forma aberr.

Described from China ( China , Guizhou ( Kweichow ) ). Type ( Esquirol 3277 ) B (destroyed).

Clustering lithophytic herb, stems with 5-7 linear-ligulate leaves 20-45 by 1.5-2 cm, pure green, few spotted with purple on lower surface near the base. Peduncle 1 flowered, 17- 25 cm tall, purple-black pubescent, dirty-purple spotted. Flowers 10- 16 cm wide, glossy. Pedicel and ovary 5- 7.5 cm long, densely hairy. Sepal and synsepal similar, olive-green, heavily suffused with brown, broadly ovate, 3-4.5 by 2-4 cm. Petals olive-green, rose-purple in apical part, spathulate, 5-8 by 1.5-3 cm, half twisted, with strongly undulated margins. Lip olive-green, spotted with rose-purple, goblet-shaped, 3-5 by 1.5- 2.8 cm . Staminode pale purple with glossy olive-brown center, sub-quadrate, 1 by 0.8 cm . Fig. 18 , e-h; 24, a .

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen, mixed and coniferous forests on rocky crystalline limestone. 350- 1250 m . Fl. March May. Not rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Cao Bang , Ha Giang, Hoa Binh , Lao Cai, Ninh Binh, Son La, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Tuyen Quang ). SW. China, N. Thailand, N. Laos .

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4669 (HN), HLF 770 (HN, LE), HLF 835 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Na Ri, HAL 4893 (HN), Cao Bang , Ha Lang, CBL 694 (HN, LE), CBL 1677 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Nguyen Binh, CBL 1628a (LE - photo) ; Cao Bang , Tra Linh, Averyanov et al., s.n., a. 1996 (HN, LE), Averyanov et al., s.n., a. 1997 (HN, LE), CBL 982 (HN, LE), DH 4349 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Trung Khanh , HAL 5545 (HN); Ha Giang, Cuan Ba, DKH 6213 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Dong Van, NTH 3532 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh , Da Bac, HAL 290 (HN, LE), HAL 318 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh , Mai Chau , DKH 7748 (HN, LE, MO), DKH 8187 (HN, LE, MO); Hoa Binh , Tung Khe, Averyanov et al., s.n., a. 1995 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Sapa, Tachtajan 56 (LE); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong, HAL 1637 (HN), HAL 2854 (HN), DDS 11325 (HN), NMC 933 (HN), NMC 1593 (HN) ; Son La, Moc Chau, NTH 2971 (HN, LE) HAL 9362 (HN, LE), HAL 9506 (HN, LE), HAL 9410 (HN, LE); ; Son La, Yen Chau, HAL 9433 (HN, LE); Thai Nguyen, Dong Hy, HAL 28 (HN, LE); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 927 (HN, LE), Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 969 (HN, LE), Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 1077 (HN, LE), Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 2986 (HN), Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 3288 (HN), Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 4345 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Quan Hoa, HAL 3716 (HN), HAL 3933 (HN); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HLF 663 (HN, LE).

Notes. In the past one of the most common lithophytic species on rocky limestone formations all over northern Vietnam . Very rarely are observed albino forms and forms with inflorescence bearing 2 flowers.

 

8b. P. hirsutissimum var. chiwuanum (T.Tang et F.T.Wang) P.J.Cribb,

1987, Gen. Paphiopedilum: 140; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 166 . P. chiwuanum T.Tang et F.T.Wang, 1951, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 56.

Described from S. China ( China , south-east Yunnan , Foo-ning Hsien, Ban-loun, 700 m. ). Type ( 15 April 1940, Wang 88252 ) PE.

Differs in small flowers, 6-8(10) cm wide. Dorsal sepal 1.8-2.6 by 1.8-2.5 cm. Synsepal 1.8-2.4 by 1.1- 1.5 cm . Petals, straight or hardly undulate on margins, 2.6-4(5) by 1- 1.3 cm . Lip 1.8-2.6 by 1.2- 1.5 cm . Fig. 18, i-k; 24, b.

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen, mixed and coniferous forests on rocky crystalline limestone. 750- 1450 m . Fl. March May. Not rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Cao Bang , Hoa Binh , Son La). S. China .

Studied specimens. Cao Bang , Bao Lac, CBL 1370 (HN, LE), CBL 1588 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh , Da Bac, HAL 319 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh , Mai Chau , HAL 624 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh , Tung Khe, Averyanov et al., s.n., a.1995 (LE); Son La, Yen Chau, DKH 7260 (HN, LE).

Notes. Montane race closely allied to previous variety.

 

9. P. barbigerum T.Tang et F.T.Wang,

1940, Bull. Fan. Mem. Inst. Bot. Ser. 10: 23; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 48; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 170 . P. insigne (Wall. ex Lindl.) Pfitzer var. barbigerum (T.Tang et F.T.Wang) Braem, 1988, Paphiopedilum: 113. - P. x areeanum Gruss, 2001, Die Orch., 52, 5: 117. - P. rhizomatozum S.C.Chen et Z.J.Liu, 2002, Journ. Wuhan Bot. Res., 20, 1: 12.

Described from S. China ( China , Kweichow ( Guizhou ) ). Type ( Cavalerie & Fortunat 1794 ) PE ( holotype), P (isotype).

Distribution. N. Myanmar, N. Thailand, S. China, N. Vietnam .

 

Key to varieties

 

1. Median sepal white with uniformly pale pink, pink, pink-brownish or carmine center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9a. P. barbigerum var. cocineum

-. Median sepal white or yellowish-pink with pink to pink-carmine center spotted with numerous contrast dark brown to brown-purple blotches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9b. P. barbigerum var. aspersum

 

Fig. 18. Paphiopedilum concolor: a flowering plant, b-d staminode; P. hirsutissimum var.
esquirolei: e flowering plant and flower, f-h staminode. P. hirsutissimum var. chiwuanum: i
flower, j, k staminode. P. barbigerum var. coccineum: l flowering plant, m staminode.

 

9a. P. barbigerum var. coccineum (Perner et R.Herrmann) W.Cavesrto,

2001, Gen. Paphiopedilum: 200. - P. coccineum Perner et R.Herrmann, 2000, Die Orchidee 51, 5: 623. P. barbigerum var. lockianum Aver., 2002, Komarovia, 2: 11; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 170 . - P. vejvarutianum Gruss et Roellke, 2003, Die Orchidee 54, 1: 59

Described from N. Vietnam (Provinz Cao Bang obviously wrong). Lectotype Ic. Paph. coccineum Perner & Hermann, 2000, Die Orchidee 51, 5: 622, 623, 624. Herbarium authentic materials (Giay Giot Thieu ohne Nummer) newer been located.

Lithophytic herb with 4-6 narrowly lanceolate, uniformly green leaves 8-14 by 0.7- 1.2 cm . Peduncle 1-flowered, erect, 12- 18 cm long, shortly brownish pubescent. Flower 6-10 cm across. Pedicel and ovary 3.1-4 cm long, shortly light brown pubescent. Median sepal white with pink, carmine or carmine-brownish center, broadly ovate, 3-5 by 2.6- 4.2 cm . Synsepal elliptic, 2.4-5 by 1.3- 2.2 cm . Petals yellowish-brown to carmine-brown with yellowish margin, spathulate, 3.6-5 by 1- 2.2 cm , with undulate margin. Lip yellowish-brown, yellow-pinkish to carmine-brown, 3-4.5 by 3- 3.5 cm . Staminode light yellow with orange umbo, obovate, 9-11 by 8- 10 mm . Fig. 18, l , m; 24, c.

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen forests on rocky crystalline limestone. 1000- 1100 m . Fl. September - November. Very rare (CR).

Distribution . Vietnam (Son La). N. Thailand ?

Studied samples. Son La, Moc Chau , P-9894 (HN), P-10546 (HN, LE), HAL 9406 (HN, LE).

Notes. Variable species, particularly in size and coloration of flower. It is one of the rarest slipper orchid species in northern Vietnam . Occurrence in Thailand ( P. vejvarutianum ) was reported on the base of cultivated plants origin of which needs confirmation.

  9b. P. barbigerum var. aspersum (Aver.) Aver., comb. et stat. nov.

- P. x aspersum Aver., 2002, Komarovia, 2: 17; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 254 . P. trantuanhii Gaetan Gogniat et X.G. de Loubresse, 2008, SOS Bull., 1, 1: 2.

Described from N. Vietnam (Son La prov., Moc Chau distr., ). Type ( Phan Ke Loc, P- 9895 ) HN .

Differs from previous variety in median sepal with pink to pink-carmine center spotted with numerous contrast dark brown to brown-purple blotches. Fig. 24, d.

Ecology. B road-leaved evergreen forests on rocky crystalline limestone. 1000- 1100 m . Fl. September November. Very rare (CR).

Distribution . Vietnam (Son La). Endemic.

Studied samples. Son La, Moc Chau, P-9895 (HN), P-10547 (HN).

Notes. Like previous variety, this is one of the rarest slipper orchid species with very restricted range. It has intermediate morphology between P. insigne and other Indochinese races of P. insigne complex (like P. barbigerum var. coccineum and P. henryanum ). Both varieties may be certainly found in limestone regions of northern Laos allied to Vietnamese border.

 

10. P. tranlienianum Gruss et Perner,

1998, Caesiana 11: 66; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 175 . P. caobangense Nguyen Thien Tich, 1999, Hoa Canh (1999), 1: 14, nom. illeg.

Described from N. Vietnam ( Bac Thai Province , October 1998 highly doubtful). Type ( fl. in cult. November 1998, leg. O.Gruss ) RO.

Lithophytic herb with 3-6 oblong lanceolate, glossy green leaves, to 18 by 1.7 cm , with paler margin. Peduncle suberect, 1-flowered, 10- 18 cm tall, bright green, yellow to purple-brown hairy. Flower 5.5- 6 cm across. Pedicel and ovary 2.9- 5 cm long, green, brown to purple-brown hairy. Dorsal sepal white, with purple veins, sub-orbiculate, 2.5-3.2 by 2.8- 3.4 cm . Synsepal pale green, ovate, 2.4-2.6 by 1.1- 1.8 cm . Petals olive-green, veined with chocolate-brown, oblong, 3-3.4 by 0.7- 0.9 cm , glossy, white-ciliate, strongly undulate along margins. Lip olive-green, glossy, with a prominent claw-like base, 3.7-3.9 by 1.6 cm . Staminode yellow, obcordate to obovate, 8-10 by 7- 9 mm , with glossy umbo. Fig. 19, a-e; 24, e.

Ecology. Broad-leaved, evergreen forests on rocky crystalline and slaty stratified. 400- 750 m . Fl. September November. Very rare (CR).

Distribution. Northern Vietnam (Thai Nguyen, Tuyen Quang). Endemic.

Studied samples. Thai Nguyen, Dong Hy, HAL 30 (HN); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 183 (HN).

Notes. Local endemic with very restricted distribution. The plants exhibit essential variation in size of flower. Very rare they develop inflorescence with 2 flowers.

 

11. P. helenae Aver.,

1996, Bot. Journ. ( Leningrad ) 81, 9: 108; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 182 . P. helenae f. aureum Gruss et Röth, 1999, Die Orchidee 50, 1: 3. P. delicatum Z.J.Liu et J.Y.Zhang, 2001, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 39, 1: 78.

Described from N. Vietnam ( Cao Bang Prov., Tra Linh Distr., Quoc Toan Subdistr., 850- 900 m , near Thang Hen Lake , environs of Thang Hen and Lung Tao villages ). Type ( 21 October 1995, L .Averyanov, N.T.Hiep, D.D.Huyen CB 12 ) LE (holotype), HN (isotype).

Dwarf lithophytic herb with 3-5 coriaceous to rigid, rather succulent, oblong leaves 3-12 by 0.6-2 cm, green with yellowish margin. Peduncle erect to almost horizontal, one-flowered, 4- 7 cm long, shortly black-purple pubescent. Flower 2.5- 6 cm across. Pedicel and ovary 2- 3.5 cm long, shortly black-purple pubescent. Median sepal dull to bright yellow with white margin, obovate to circular, 1.8-3.5 by 1.5-3 cm. Synsepal white, ovate, 1.5-2.5 by 0.8- 1.5 cm . Petals pale yellow to bright orange with darker nerves, straight, ligulate, 1.5-3.5 by 0.4- 0.8 cm . Lip pale pink to brownish-orange, saccate, 2-3 by 1.5-2 cm. Staminode yellow, obovate to circular, 7- 8 mm across, with central bright yellow to greenish umbo. Fig. 19, f-h; 24, f .

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen, mixed and coniferous dry forests on rocky crystalline limestone. 500- 900 m . Fl. September November. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan , Cao Bang , Lang Son). S. China ?

Studied samples. Bac Kan, Na Ri, HAL 4981 (HN); NTH 3716 (HN, LE), DKH 7539 (HN, LE, MO); Cao Bang , Ha Lang, CBL 648 (HN, LE), CBL 744 (HN, LE), CBL 767/1 (LE), CBL 789 (HN, LE), CBL 1690b (LE); Cao Bang , Thach An, CBL 830 (HN, LE), CBL 911 (HN, LE); Cao Bang , Tra Linh, CB 12 (HN, LE), CBL 1140 (HN, LE), CBL 1222/1 (LE); Cao Bang , Trung Khanh , HAL 5456 (HN), HAL 5628 (HN); Lang Son, Bac Son, HAL 6728 (HN).

Notes. Local endemic with very restricted distribution. Quite possible this species occurred in the past in border territory of S. China allied to Cao Bang and Lang Son provinces of Vietnam . It is very variable in plant dimensions and flower coloration. Flowers vary from very small, about 2.5 cm wide, to relatively large up to 6- 7 cm across.

 

12. P. henryanum Braem,

1987, Schlechteriana 1, 1: 4; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 19; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 20; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 191 . P. dollii Lückel, 1987, Die Orchidee 38, 5: 266. P. chaoi Hua, 1999, Die Orchidee 50, 5: 495.

Described from China ( China , border region to Vietnam ). Type ( 1987, Azadehdel s.n.) SCHLE.

Lithophytic herb with 3-6 lanceolate leaves 10-17 by 1.2- 1.6 cm , glossy dark green, with yellowish line along margin. Peduncle suberect to arcuate-pendent, 1-flowered, 12- 15 cm long, green, purple-brown pubescent. Pedicel and ovary 3.6-4 cm long, light green. Flower 4- 6 cm across. Median sepal and synsepal light yellowish-green with maroon spots, broadly-ovate to subcircular; sepals 3.3-3.6 by 2.9- 3.5 cm , undulate on margins; synsepal 2.5-2.8 by 1.6 cm . Petals dull yellowish to pink-violet, spotted with maroon, spreading, oblong-spathulate, 3.4-3.6 by 1.4- 1.6 cm , with undulate margins. Lip rose to pink-violet, deeply saccate, 3.7-4.3 by 1.9- 2.1 cm . Staminode yellow with purple tint, broadly obovate, 7-10 by 8- 9 mm . Fig. 19, i-l; 24, g .

Ecology. Broad-leaved, mixed and coniferous, evergreen or semi-deciduous forests on rocky crystalline limestone. 700- 1400 m . Fl. September November. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Bac Kan , Ha Giang). S. China .

Studied samples. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4767 (HN), HAL 4817 (HN), HLF 772 (HN, LE), HLF 805 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Dong Van, NTH 3533 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Meo Vac, CBL 1875 (HN, LE), NTH 3323 (HN, LE), HAL 8497 (HN); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, NTH 3590 (HN, LE), DKH 6159 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Vi Xuyen, DKH 6460 (HN, LE).

Notes. Local endemic with very restricted distribution. Very variable species, particularly in size of flowers, form and spotting of tepals. Rarely are observed albino specimens.

Fig. 19. Paphiopedilum tranlienianum: a flowering plant, b flower, c-e staminode; P. helenae:
f flowering plant, g flower, h staminode; P. henryanum: i flowering plant, j flower, k, l
staminode.

 

13. P. gratrixianum Masters ex Rolfe,

1905, Orchid Rev. 13: 63; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 17; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 20; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 48; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 199 . - Cypripedium gratrixianum Masters, 1905, Gard. Chron. Ser. 3, 37: 76, fig. 35, nom. invalid., non B.C.Williams, 1897. - Paphiopedilum villosum (Lindl.) Stein var. gratrixianum (Masters ex Rolfe) Braem, 1988, Paphiopedilum: 119.

Described from Laos (Native of Annam ). Type ( Micholitz s.n., cult. Sander ) - K.

Distribution. S. Laos, Vietnam .

 

Key to varieties

 

1. Median sepal with green, olive-green to yellowish-green center, sometimes slightly flushed with purple-violet, spotted with numerous small spots . . . . . . . . . . . . 13a. P. gratrixianum var. gratrixianum

-. Median sepal pure white, occasionally with light green or purplw violet tint at the base, spotted with few relatively large blotches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13b. P. gratrixianum var. daoense

 

13a. P. gratrixianum var. gratrixianum.

Lithophytic or terrestrial herb with 4-7 lanceolate, pure green, leaves up to 30 by 2-3 cm, spotted with dirty purple-violet on underside near the base. Peduncle 1-flowered, erect, up to 25 cm long, green, brownish-purple hairy. Pedicel and ovary 4- 5.5 cm long, pale green. Flower 7- 8 cm across. Median sepal with green to brownish-green center and white margin, more or less heavily spotted with brown-purple, broadly ovate to subcircular, 4.8-5.2 by 4.4- 4.6 cm . Synsepal pale green, ovate-elliptic, 3.5-5 by 2.5 cm. Petals yellow-brown, veined with purple-brown, glossy, spreading, spathulate, 4.5-5.2 by 1.8-2.5 cm, margins undulate or reflexed. Lip yellow to yellow-brown, glossy, 4-4.2 by 2.4- 2.8 cm . Staminode yellow, obovate, 10- 12 mm long and wide, shortly acute at the apex. Fig. 24, h.

Ecology. Broad-leaved, evergreen forests on granite, gneiss and similar silicate rocks. 900-1500 (2000?) m. Fl. October - December. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong), S. Laos .

Studied samples. Lam Dong, cult., Averyanov, s.n. , a.2004 (LE - photo), Averyanov, s.n ., a.2005 (LE - photo).

Notes. Available reports of this variety for Vietnam are based on cultivated plants supposedly collected in montane regions along Laos-Vietnamese border. Occurrence in Vietnam needs confirmation. Very variable variety in coloration of median. Easily forms hybrids with P. villosum .

 

13b. P. gratrixianum var. daoense Aver.,

2002, Orch. Rev., 110, 1247: 287.

Described from N. Vietnam ( Vinh Phuc Prov., Tam Dao Distr., vicinities of Tam Dao town (21º27'N 105º39'E). Tam Dao ridge at an altitude of 950-1000 m. ). Type ( 10 November 1998 . N.T.Hiep, Averyanov L. s.n. ) HN (holotype.), LE (isotype).

Differs from type variety in pure white median sepal, rarely light green or purple violet tinted at the base, spotted with few relatively large purple-brown blotches. Leaves and inflorescence shorter and all plant more compact and miniature. Fig. 20, a-c; 24, i.

Ecology. Broad-leaved, evergreen humid forests on granite, rhyolite and similar silicate rocks. 900- 1500 m . Fl. October - December. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lai Chau, Lao Cai, Thai Nguyen, Vinh Phuc). Endemic.

Studied samples. Lao Cai, Sa Pa , Averyanov, s.n. a.2005 (LE - photo); Vinh Phuc, Tam Dao, 10 November 1998 . N.T.Hiep, Averyanov L. s.n. (HN, LE), VH 5041 (HN, LE).

Notes. According to observations not confirmed by herbarium collections, this variety may be rarely found also on rocky limestone.

 

14. P. villosum (Lindl.) Stein,

1892, Orchideenbuch: 490; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 19; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 19; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 208 . - Cypripedium villosum Lindl., 1854, Gard. Chron. (1854): 135.

Described from Myanmar ( Burma ). Type ( Lobb s.n. ) K.

Distribution. NE. India, Myanmar , S. China, Laos , Vietnam , Thailand .

 

Key to varieties

 

1. Median sepal broadly oblanceolate to narrowly obovate, boldly spotted with deep brown fused blotches, with strongly reflexed lateral margins throughout its length; petals often marked with purple-brown, narrowly spatulate, distinctly attenuate to narrowing stipitate base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14e. P. villosum var. boxallii

-. Median sepal obovate to suborbicular, without distinct spots, with strongly reflexed lateral margins at lower part; petals without purple-brown marks, with more or less broad, not distinctly stipitate base . . . . . . . 2

 

2. Median sepal dark brown with more or less wide yellowish-green to whitish margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14a. P. villosum var. villolsum

-. Median sepal light yellowish-green, dull pink to purple, or white with more or less wide median longitudinal brown stripe . . . . . . . . 3

 

3. Median sepal white, with more or less wide median longitudinal brown stripe, sometimes with broad dark brown central area occasionally margining with green . . . . . . . . . . 14b. P. villosum var. annamense

-. Central area of median sepal dull pink to dark purple or dull yellowish-green tinted with light brown along mid-vein . . . . . . . . . 4

 

4. Central area of median sepal dull pink to dark purple, occasionally greenish at the base; sepal margin commonly white . . . . . . . . 14d. P. villosum var. fusco-roseum

-. Median sepal dull yellowish-green, tinted with light brown along mid-vein, occasionally with white or yellowish-white margin . . . . . . . . . 14c. P. villosum var. fusco-viride

 

14a. P. villosum var. villosum.

Epiphytic herb with 4-5, ligulate, pure green leaves, 14-42 by 2.5-4 cm, on beneath, purple-spotted at the base. Peduncle suberect to pendent, 1-flowered, 7- 24 cm long, green, whitish to black-purple villose. Pedicel and ovary, 3- 6 cm long, light-green, densely villose. Flower 7.5- 13.5 cm across. Dorsal sepal dark brown with yellowish-green to whitish margin, obovate, 4.5-7 by 3- 4.6 cm . Synsepal pale green; narrowly ovate, 3.8-7.6 by 1.8- 2.6 cm . Petals yellow- to reddish-brown, often with a central maroon stripe, glossy, spathulate, 4.7-8.6 by 2.5- 4.6 cm . Lip yellow-brown flushed with reddish, 4-6.8 by 3- 3.8 cm . Staminode yellow, obovate, about 16 by 14 mm , with a central glossy umbo. Fig. 25, a .

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen and mixed humid forests mainly on silicate rocks. 1300- 2000 m . Fl. November - March. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dak Nong, Lam Dong), NE. India, Myanmar , SW. China, Laos , Thailand .

Studied samples. Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5671 (HN); Lam Dong, Dalat, Averyanov, s.n., a.2005 (LE - photo).

Notes. This is most common and widespread variety. It commonly growth as typical humus epiphyte.

 

14b. P. villosum var. annamense Rolfe,

1907, Curtis Bot. Mag. 133: t. 8126; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 215 .

Described from S. Vietnam ( Annam , Micholitz s.n ., cult. Sander ). Lectotype Ic. P. villosum var. annamense (1907, Curtis's Bot. Mag. 133, tab. 8126).

This variety differs from the type in pure white median sepal with narrow chestnut-brown longitudinal stripe. Occasionally this central brown stripe on sepal becomes wider forming broad chestnut to brown-purple central area margining with green. Fig. 20, d-f; 25, b.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved mixed and evergreen humid forests mainly on silicate rocks. 1300- 2000 m . Fl. November - March. Occasional (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Dak Nong, Khanh Hoa, Lam Dong). Endemic.

Studied samples. Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5671 (HN); Gia Lai, Chu Pah , Phan Ke Loc, P-9863 (HN); Khanh Hoa, Khanh Son, VH 4349 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Dalat, Averyanov, s.n., a.1995 (LE - photo), Averyanov, s.n ., a.2005 (LE - photo), O.Zaitsev et al. 153 & 281 (LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, VH 3120 (HN, LE), VH 3333 (HN, LE).

Notes. Eastern vicarious race of the species, which is rather common in montane forests of southern Vietnam . Very variable. Growth commonly as humus epiphyte.

 

14c. P. villosum var. fusco-viride Aver.,

2002, Komarovia 2: 17.

Described from S. Vietnam (Gia Lai prov., Chu Pah distr.). Type ( 27.05.2001, Phan Ke Loc, P-9845B ) HN.

Flowers wholly dull yellowish with dull yellowish-green median sepal hardly tinted with brown at the center. It commonly grows as lithophytic or terrestrial herb. Fig. 25, c.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved mixed and evergreen humid forests mainly on silicate rocks. 1300- 1700 m . Fl. October - December. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong, Gia Lai ). Endemic.

Studied samples. Gia Lai., Chu Pah , P-9845B (HN); Lam Dong, Dalat, Averyanov, s.n., a.2005 (LE - photo).

Notes. Local endemic of eastern Indochina . May be found on territories of Cambodia and Laos allied to Vietnamese border.

 

14d. P. villosum var. fusco-roseum Aver.,

2002, Komarovia 2: 17. - P. macranrhum Z.J.Liu et S.C.Chen, 2002, Acta Bot. Yunnan., 24, 6: 712.

Described from S. Vietnam (Gia Lai prov., Chu Pah distr.). Type ( 27.05.2001, Phan Ke Loc, P-9845A ) HN.

Median sepal with pink to purple center bordering with pure. Occasionally pink central area of the sepal at the base tinted with light green. Often whole flower may be light dull yellowish with nearly white median sepal slightly tinted with pink. Fig 25, d.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved mixed and evergreen humid forests mainly on silicate rocks. 1300- 1700 m . Fl. October - December. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong, Gia Lai ). E. Cambodia .

Studied samples. Gia Lai., Chu Pah , P-9845A (HN); Lam Dong, Dalat, Averyanov, s.n., a.2005 (LE - photo).

Notes. Local endemic of eastern Indochina . May be also found on the territory of Laos allied to Vietnamese border. It commonly grows as lithophytic and terrestrial

 

14e. P. villosum var. boxallii (Reichenb.f.) Pfitzer,

1903, in Engler, Pflanzenr. 4, 50, 12, Orch. Pleon.: 73; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 217 . Cypripedium boxallii Reichenb.f., 1877, Gard. Chron. n.s. 7: 367.

Described from Myanmar ( Burma , Moulmein ). Type ( Boxall s.n .) W.

This variety distinguished by its deep colored flowers with a boldly spotted narrow median sepal and narrow lateral petals heavily striped with purple-brown. Fig. 25, e.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen humid mountain forests? Fl.? Probably very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lao Cai, Lai Chau)?, Myanmar .

Studied samples. Lao Cai, Sa Pa , Averyanov, s.n., a.2004 (LE - photo).

Notes. Many plants of this rare variety collected in nature are cultivated in Sa Pa town. Meanwhile the occurrence of this plant in Vietnam needs confirmation by herbarium collections.

 

15. P. appletonianum (Gower) Rolfe,

1896, Orchid Rev. 4: 364; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 19; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 21; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 48; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 218 . - Cypripedium appletonianum Gower, 1893, The Garden 1893: 95. - Paphiopedilum hainanense Fowlie, 1987, Orchid Dig. 51, 2: 69. P. cerveranum Braem, 1999, Orchid. Cult. Protect. 38: 28. - P. tridentatum S.C. Chen, Z.J. Liu et J.Y. Zhang, 2001, Acta Phytotax. Sin., 39, 5: 455.

Area of the type origin unknown ("a plant was introduced with some plants of C.Hookerae"). Type (" hort. F.Appleton , April 1893 ") - K

Terrestrial or lithophytic herb with 4-8 oblong-elliptic leaves 7-25 by 2-4 cm, distinctly tessellated. Peduncle erect, 1(2)-flowered, 20- 50 cm long, purple, shortly pubescent. Pedicel and ovary dull dirty purple spotted, 3- 6 cm long. Flower 6- 12 cm across. Dorsal sepal olive-green, often brown-purple striped, ovate, 2.7-4.5 by, 2- 3.2 cm . Synsepal green, elliptic, 2-3 by 1.1- 1.5 cm . Petals green with darker green and olive-brown stripes and maroon-black spots in basal half, pale pink-purple to the apex, spatulate, 4.4-6 by 1.2- 1.8 cm , often with marginal maroon-black warts along upper margin. Lip olive-green, often with pale purple tint, 3.6- 4.6 cm long; front margin more or less distinctly 2-6-dentate. Staminode yellowish to green with yellowish margin and central yellowish spot, from broadly obcordate to deeply transversely lunate, with 2, 4 or 5 toothed apex, 7-9 by 8- 9 mm . Fig. 20, g-k; 25, f .

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen, mixed and coniferous humid forests on granite, gneiss and sandstone. 700- 2000 m . Fl. March May. Occasional (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dak Lac, Dak Nong, Khanh Hoa, Kon Tum, Lam Dong, Ninh Thuan, Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien Hue ), China (Hainan), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia.

Studied samples. Dak Lac, Krong Bong, VH 6351 (HN, LE); Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5671 (HN); Khanh Hoa, Khanh Le, QD-12 (LE); Khanh Hoa, Khanh Son, VH 4281 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, VH 964 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Kon Plong, VH 5316 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Dalat, L.Averyanov, N.T.Hiep VH s.n., a.1995 (LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, VH 3405 (HN, LE,), VH 4123 (HN, LE); Ninh Thuan, Ninh Son, VH 3530 (HN, LE), VH 3626 (HN, LE); Quang Tri, Huong Hoa, HLF 5800 d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0072/HLF5800 (HN); Thua Thien Hue, A Luoi, HAL 7607 (HN); Thua Thien - Hue, Phu Loc, HLF 959 (HN), HLF 1049 (HN); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 11715 (HN).

Notes. One of the most common and variable species, particularly in coloration of flowers, form of tepals and staminode. Very rare some specimens in wild populations form two-flowered inflorescence.

 

16. P. callosum (Reichenb.f.) Stein,

1892, Orchideenbuch: 457; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 20; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 21; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 48; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 230 . - Cypripedium callosum Reichenb.f. 1886, Gard. Chron. Ser. 2, 26: 326. - Paphiopedilum callosum var. angustipetalum Guillaum., 1924, Bull. Soc. Bot. France Ser. 4, 24: 551. P. amabile auct. non Hallier.: Seidenf., 1975, Contrib. Revis. Orch. Fl. Cambod. Laos Vietnam : 88; Aver., 1988, Prelim. List Vietnam . Orch. 2: 31.

Described from Thailand (" Siam "). Type (" Regnier s.n. ) - W.

Distribution. Thailand , Vietnam , Laos , Cambodia .

 

Key to varieties

 

1. Petals strongly sigmoid, distinctly down deflexed, usually more than 5 cm long, commonly with ciliate warts along upper and lower margin; median sepal usually more than 5 cm vide . . . . . . . . . . 16a. P. callosum var. callosum

-. Petals hardly sigmoid or straight, borne at an angle of 45 to the horizontal, usually less than 5 cm long, with few ciliate warts along upper margin or without marginal warts at all; median sepal usually less than 5 cm vide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.

 

2. Petals bear few warts only on the upper margin . . . . . 16b. P. callosum var. warnerianum

-. Petals lack the marginal warts at all . . . . . 16c. P. callosum var. potentianum

Fig. 20.Paphiopedilum gratrixianum var. daoense: a flowering plant, b, c staminode;
P. villosum var. annamense: d flowering plant, e, f staminode; P. appletonianum: g
flowering plant, h flower, i, j staminode, k variation of staminode shape.

 

16a. P. callosum var. callosum.

Terrestrial or lithophytic herb with 3-6 oblong-elliptic, distinctly tessellated leaves, 10-20 by 3.2- 4.8 cm . Peduncle 1-flowered, 20- 40 cm tall, marked with purple, purple-pubescent. Pedicel and ovary 3- 6.5 cm long, green, flushed with purple. Flowers 8- 11 cm across. Dorsal sepal white, veined with purple and green, with small silver warts near the base, broadly obovate, 4-5.5 by 4.2- 6 cm . Synsepal white to greenish, elliptic, 2.7-3.2 by 1.6-2.5 cm. Petals greenish with a purple apical third, spotted with maroon, sigmoid, ligulate, 4.6-6.8 by 1.2- 1.8 cm , with maroon ciliated marginal warts. Lip dull brown-purple, warted on side lobes, 2.5-4.4 by 2-2.5 cm. Staminode white to yellowish, with dark green veins, lunate, 7 by 11 mm . Fig. 21, a-c; 25, g .

Ecology. Shady evergreen broad-leaved forests mainly on granite and sandstone. 300- 1300 m . Fl. April June. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Dak Nong, Gia Lai, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Lam Dong, Quang Tri), Thailand , Laos , Cambodia .

Studied samples. Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5575 (HN); Gia Lai, Chu Pah , P.K.Loc P-9864 (HN); Khanh Hoa, Tourane, Delacour s.n. (P); Kien Giang, Phu Quoc, N.V.Khoi s.n. (LE - photo); Lam Dong, Dalat area., Grillet 51 (P), Grillet 215 (P), Averyanov, Hiep VH s.n ., a. 2000 (LE); Quang Tri, Lao-bao, Dalacour s.n. (P).

Notes. Widespread, but presently very rare and highly endangered species. Obviously old records for Vietnam were based on populations which now already extinct. Very variable, particularly in form and coloration of sepal and petals. Some specimens in the wild rarely form 2-flowered stalk as well as albino or sub-albino flowers.

 

16b. P. callosum var. warnerianum (T.Moore) P.J.Cribb ex Aver., comb. nov .

- Cypripedium barbatum var. warnerianum T.Moore, 1878, Warner Select. Orchid., Ser. 3, Pl. 3, t. 11. C. callosum var. sublaeve Reichenb.f., 1888, Gard. Chron., Ser. 3, 3: 331. Paphiopedilum callosum var. sublaeve (Reichenb.f.) P.J.Cribb, 1987, Gen. Paphiopedilum: 188.

Origin of the type unknown. Lectotype Ic. Paphiopedilum callosum var. warnerianum (T.Moore, 1878, l .c. Pl. 3, t. 11).

Differs from type variety in smaller flowers. Median sepal smaller, 3.4-4.2 by 3- 4.1 cm . Petals shorter, relatively broader, more or less spread or hardly sigmoid, with warts only on the upper margin, usually uniform green to pink-purple with more dark longitudinal nerves, rarely spotted. Fig. 25, h.

Ecology. Shady evergreen broad-leaved lowland and submontane forests. Fl. April June. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong), S. Thailand , NW. Malacca.

Studied samples. Lam Dong, Dalat, Averyanov, HAL s.n. a.2004 (LE - photo).

Notes. This taxon having main area of distribution in Peninsular Thailand and adjacent north-west Malacca is sometimes regarded as natural hybrid between two vicarious species P. callosum (distributed in mainland Southeast Asia) and P. barbatum (from Malacca Peninsular and northern Sumatra). Rarely occur samples with 2-flowered inflorescence, as well as sub-albino and albino forms.

 

16c. P. callosum var. potentianum (O.Gruss et J.Roeth) P.J.Cribb,

1998, Gen. Paphiopedilum, ed. 2: 337. P. potentianum O.Gruss et J.Roeth, 1995, Caesiana 5: 39.

Described from Thailand ( Thailand ). Type (cult. E. et G. Potent , Roth s.n. ) - HAL.

The variety differs from the type in unspotted petals lacking marginal warts on the upper margin and in its narrower dorsal sepal, about 4 by 2.6 cm . Fig. 25, i.

Ecology. Shady evergreen broad-leaved lowland and submontane forests. Fl. April June. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong), Thailand .

Studied samples. Lam Dong, Dalat, Averyanov, HAL s.n. a.2004 (LE - photo).

Notes. May be certainly found in lowlands of Laos and Cambodia . Rarely forms sub-albino and albino forms.

 

17. P. purpuratum (Lindl.) Stein,

1892, Orchideenbuch: 481; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 20; Averyanov, 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam . Orch.: 21; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 236 . - Cypripedium purpuratum Lindl., 1837, Bot. Reg. 23: t. 1991. - C. sinicum Hance ex Rchb.f., 1853, Walp. Ann. 3: 602. - Paphiopedilum sinicum (Hance) Stein, 1892, Orchideenbuch: 481. - P. purpuratum (Lindl.) Stein var. hainanense F.Y.Liu et Perner, 2001, Orchidee 52, 1: 64. - P. aestivum Z.J.Liu et J.Y.Zhang, 2001, Acta Phytotax. Sinica 39, 6: 568, fig. 1.

Described from Hong Kong ? Lectotype Ic. Cypripedium purpuratum (Lindl., 1837, Bot. Reg. 23, t. 1991).

Terrestrial herb with 4-8 oblong-elliptic, distinctly tessellated leaves, 7-17 by 2.3- 4.2 cm . Peduncle 1-flowered 10- 20 cm tall, purple-violet, deep purple pubescent. Pedicel and ovary 2.5-4 cm long, green, whitish pubescent. Flowers 7-10 cm across. Dorsal sepal white, greenish at the base, heavily veined with purple broadly cordate, 2.5-3.5 by 2.2- 4.3 cm . Synsepal green with darker veins, narrowly ovate, 2-3.5 by 1.2- 1.6 cm . Petals glossy deep purple-maroon, heavily spotted with black-maroon spots, spreading, narrowly elliptic, 3.5-4.6 by 0.9- 1.3 cm . Lip purple, 3.3-4.4 by 2- 2.7 cm , verrucose on incurved side-lobes. Staminode yellowish, purple tinted along margin, with green veins, lunate, with narrow falcate acute side lobes, 8 by 8- 11 mm . Fig. 21, d-g; 26, a .

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen and semi-deciduous forests on highly eroded crystalline limestone at elev. 600- 1400 m . Fl. September - October. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Cao Bang , Lao Cai, Tuyen Quang), SE. China .

Studied samples. Cao Bang , Bao Lac, CBL 1458b (LE); Lao Cai, Sa Pa, P.K.Loc s.n., a.2000 (HN, LE - photo); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HLF 662 (HN, LE).

Notes. Rare species, which populations commonly include very few scattered samples. Leaf tessellation varies from whitish or pale green to deep green. Rarely forms 2-flowered inflorescence.

 

18. P. dianthum T.Tang et F.T.Wang,

1940, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. Ser. 10: 24; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 48; Aver et al., 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam : 244 . - P. parishii (Reichenb.f.) Stein var. dianthum (T.Tang et F.T.Wang) Karasawa et Saito, 1982, Bull. Hiroshima Bot. Gard. 5: 38.

Described from S. China ( China , Yunnan , Mengtze, ). Type ( Wang et Liu, 83446 ) - PE.

Large lithophytic herb forming clumps of up to 15 growths, each with 4-6 coriaceous, ligulate, dark green leaves 20-50 by 2- 5 cm . Inflorescence arching or suberect, with 1-7 flowers, green, sparsely papillose below. Pedicel and ovary glabrous, 4- 7 cm long. Flowers 12- 15 cm across. Dorsal sepal white with green venation at the base, obovate, 3.8-4.3 by 2.2-2.5 cm. Synsepal pale green to white, broadly ovate, 3.5-3.8 by 2.3- 2.6 cm . Petals light greenish, olive-green striped, with few black hairy marginal warts near base, linear-tapering, strongly twisted, pendent, 8-11 by 1- 1.1 cm , with roundish hairy apex. Lip olive-green, deeply saccate, 4-4.5 by 2-2.5 cm. Staminode obcordate, with a blunt basal umbo, three-lobed at apex, 9-11 by 6- 7.5 mm , white with dark green venation in the center. Fig. 21, h-k; 26, b.

Ecology. Coniferous, mixed and broad-leaved, evergreen, humid forests on highly eroded, crystalline limestone at elev. 600- 1450 m . Fl. September November. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Cao Bang , Ha Giang, Hoa Binh , Lai Chau, Lao Cai, Son La). S. China .

Studied samples. Cao Bang , Bao Lac, CBL 394 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Dong Van, NTH 3364 (HN, LE), NTH 3539 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh , Mai Chau , HAL 680 (HN, LE), DKH 7871 (HN, LE, MO); Lai Chau, Averyanov s.n. (LE - photo); Lao Cai, Averyanov s.n. (LE - photo); Son La, Moc Chau, DKH 7396 (HN, LE), NTH 2970 (HN, LE), HAL 9328 (HN, LE), HAL 9409 (HN); Son La, Yen Chau, DKH 7279 (HN, LE), HAL 9500 (HN, LE).

Notes. Species is closely allied to P. parishii from Myanmar , Thailand and SW. Yunnan, but differs in its lithophytic habit, glabrous inflorescences, bracts and ovary and in white dorsal sepal.

Fig. 21. Paphiopedilum callosum var. callosum: a flowering plant, b, c staminode;
P. purpuratum: d flowering plant, eg staminode; P. dianthum: h flowering plant, i
flower, j, k staminode.

 

 

Natural hybrids of Paphiopedilum species reported from Vietnam

 

P. appletonianum × P. gratrixianum.

- P. × affine De Wild , 1906, Trib. Hort. 1: 57.

Described from N. Vietnam ( Tonkin ). Type ( cult. Bruxelles) not located.

Any data on ecology and distribution are not yet available.

 

P. appletonianum × P. villosum.

- P. × cribbii Aver., 2006, Orchids. Mag. Amer. Orch. Soc. 76, 6: 458. Fig. 22, a , b; 26, c.

Described from S. Vietnam (Lam Dong Prov., Dalat City area ). Type (November 14, 2005, L .Averyanov, P.K.Loc. HAL 8626 ) - HN.

Ecology. Broad-leaved, evergreen and mixed forests on silicate soils at elev. 1500- 2100 m . Fl. October - December. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong).

Studied samples. Lam Dong, Dalat area, HAL 8626 (LE - photo).

 

P. barbigerum (var. aspersum ) × P. gratrixianum. Fig. 26, d.

Any data on ecology and distribution are not yet available. Fl. October.

Studied samples. Lam Dong, Dalat area, Averyanov, s.n., a.2005 (LE - photo).

 

P. callosum × P. gratrixianum. Fig. 26, e.

Any data on ecology and distribution are not yet available. Fl. October.

Studied samples. Lam Dong, Dalat area, Averyanov, s.n., a.2005 (LE - photo).

 

P. callosum × P. villosum.

- P. × dalatense Aver., 2001, Orchid Digest, 65, 3: 134. - P. purpuratum auct. non (Lindl.) Stein: Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 20; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam . Orch.: 21. Fig. 22, c-e; 26, f .

Described from S. Vietnam ( Lam Dong province, Don Duong ). Type ( cult. Dalat city Institute of Biology . Coll. N.V.Duy, No. P1 11, Nov. 1996 ) LE.

Ecology. Broad-leaved, evergreen and mixed forests on silicate soils at elev. 900- 1700 m . Fl. April October. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong).

Studied samples. Lam Dong, Don Duong, N.V.Duy, PI 11 (LE); Lam Dong, Dalat area, HAL 4581 (LE - photo); Averyanov s.n., a.2005 (LE - photo).

 

P. gratrixianum × P. villosum. Fig. 26, g .

Ecology. Broad-leaved, evergreen and mixed forests on silicate soils at elev. 900- 2100 m . Fl. September December. Rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong).

Studied samples. Lam Dong, Dalat area, Averyanov, s.n., a.2005 (LE - photo).

 

P. helenae × P. hirsutissimum.

- P . × herrmannii F.Fuchs et H.Reisinger , 1995, Linzer. Biol. Beitr. 27, 2: 1213. Fig. 22, f-I; 26, h.

Described from N. Vietnam ( North Vietnam , border region to China ). Type ( Herrmann 343/85 ) LI.

Ecology. Coniferous, mixed and broad-leaved, evergreen, closed forests on limestone at elev. 700- 900 m . Fl. August October. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Cao Bang ).

Studied samples. Cao Bang , Trung Khanh , HAL 5627 (HN); Cao Bang , Tra Linh, , L.Averyanov et al.,s.n., May 1997 (HN, LE).

Fig. 22. Paphiopedilum appletonianum ´ P. villosum (P. ´ cribbii): a flowering plant, b staminode;
P. callosum × P. villosum (P. ´ dalatense): c flowering plant, d flower, e staminode;
P. helenae ´ P. hirsutissimum (P. ´ herrmannii): f flowering plant, g flower, h, i staminode.

Fig. 23. Paphiopedilum delenatii: a (Averyanov s.n., 2005); P. vietnamense: b (HAL 31); P. malipoense
var. malipoense: c (HAL 6207); P. malipoense var. jackii: d (HAL 169); P. malipoense
var. hiepii: e (Hiep s.n., 1995, type); P. micranthum: f (HAL 8341); P. hangianum: g (HAL
4789); P. emersonii: h (HAL 1581); P. concolor: i (HLF 5935).

Fig. 24. Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum var. esquirolei: a (Averyanov et al. s.n., 1995); P. hirsutissimum
var. chiwuanum: b (CBL 1588); P. barbigerum var. coccineum: c (P-10546); P. barbigerum
var. aspersum: d (P-10547); P. tranlienianum: e (HAL 183); P. helenae: f (Averyanov et al.,
CB 12, 1995, type); P. henryanum: g (NTH 3590); P. gratrixianum var. gratrixianum: h (Averyanov
s.n., 2005); P. gratrixianum var. daoense: i (Averyanov s.n., 2005).

Fig. 25. Paphiopedilum villosum var. villosum: a (Averyanov s.n., 2005); P. villosum var. annamense:
b (Averyanov s.n., 1995); P. villosum var. fusco-viride: c (Averyanov s.n., 2005); P. villosum
var. fusco-roseum: d (Averyanov s.n., 2005); P. villosum var. boxallii: e (Averyanov s.n., 2004);
P. appletonianum: f (HLF 5800); P. callosum var. callosum: g (HLF 5575); P. callosum var. warnerianum:
h (Averyanov, HAL s.n., 2004); P. callosum var. potentianum: i (Averyanov, HAL s.n., 2004).

Fig. 26. Paphiopedilum purpuratum: a (CBL 1458b); P. dianthum: b (Averyanov s.n.); P. appletonianum
× P. villosum: c (HAL 8626, type); P. barbigerum (var. aspersum) × P. gratrixianum:
d (Averyanov s.n., 2005); P. callosum × P. gratrixianum: e (Averyanov s.n., 2005); P. callosum ×
P. villosum: f (Averyanov s.n., 2005); P. gratrixianum × P. villosum: g (Averyanov s.n., 2005);
P. helenae × P. hirsutissimum: h (Averyanov s.n., 2002); P. malipoense × P. micranthum: i
(Averyanov s.n., 2006).

 

P. malipoense × P. micranthum.

- P . × fanaticum Koop. et N.Haseg. , 1992, Orch. Advocate, 18, 2: 50. Fig. 26, i.

Described from China (ex China ... ). Type ( cult. H.Koopowitz, Paphanatics, unlimited ) K.

Ecology. Coniferous, mixed and broad-leaved, evergreen, closed forests on limestone at elev. 800- 1400 m . Fl. April May. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam ( Cao Bang ?, Ha Giang?).

Studied samples. Cultivated plants collected supposedly in highland limestone areas of Cao Bang and Ha Giang provinces along border with China .

 

...

 

 

Leonid Averyanov

L.Averyanov

..

THE ORCHIDS OF VIETNAM

ILLUSTRATED SURVEY